January 14 (January 2 O.S.) – The Imperial Public Library in Saint Petersburg opens to the public.
January 26 – Actor Edmund Kean makes his London début in an adult leading rôle as Shylock at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
February 1 – Lord Byron's semi-autobiographical tale in verse The Corsair is published by John Murray in London and sells 10,000 copies on this day and over 25,000 in the first month, going through seven editions. His Lara sells 6,000 copies on publication in the summer. Walter Scott is to say of Byron's poetry "He beat me out of the field in description of the stronger passions and in deep-seated knowledge of the human heart."
July 7 – Walter Scott's Waverley, his first prose fiction and one of the first significant historical novels in English, is published anonymously by Archibald Constable in Edinburgh, selling out in two days.
July 28–September 13 – English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley abandons his pregnant wife and runs away with the 16-year-old Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, accompanied by her stepsister Jane Clairmont (also 16), to France and Switzerland.
September 12–15 – Battle of Baltimore (War of 1812): American lawyer Francis Scott Key, witnessing the bombardment of Baltimore, Maryland, from a British ship, writes "Defence of Fort McHenry". His brother-in-law arranges to have the poem published in a broadside with a recommended tune on September 17 and on September 20, both the Baltimore Patriot and The American print it; the song quickly becomes popular, with seventeen newspapers from Georgia to New Hampshire reproducing it. In 1931 as "The Star-Spangled Banner" it is officially adopted at the national anthem of the United States.
November 29 – In London, The Times newspaper is printed using a revolutionary steam press for the first time at a rate of 1100 copies per hour.
Late – Publication of the Brothers Grimm's Grimms' Fairy Tales, first edition, second volume (dated 1815).
The earliest known printed Arabic language version of One Thousand and One Nights begins publication in Calcutta by the British East India Company.
Alfred de Vigny enrolls as an officer in the Maison du Roi, the King's guard of Louis XVIII of France.
Jane Austen (anonymously) – Mansfield Park
Fanny Burney – The Wanderer: or, Female Difficulties (her last novel)
Mary Brunton – Discipline
Adelbert von Chamisso – Peter Schlemihls wundersame Geschichte (Peter Schlemihl's Miraculous Story)
Selina Davenport – The Hypocrite
Maria Edgeworth – Patronage
Pierce Egan – The Mistress of Royalty
Ethelia: a Tale
Ann Hatton – Conviction
Laetitia Matilda Hawkins – Rossane; or A Father's Labour Lost
William Henry Hitchener – The Towers of Ravenswold
Christian Isobel Johnstone – The Saxon and the Gaël
Mary Meeke – Conscience
Lady Morgan – O'Donnell
Anna Maria Porter – The Recluse of Norway
Regina Maria Roche – Trecothick Bower
Walter Scott – Waverley
Louisa Stanhope – Madelina: A Tale Founded on Facts
Elizabeth Thomas – The Prison-House
Jane West – Alicia de Lacy
Mary Elizabeth Budden – Always Happy!!: Or, Anecdotes of Felix and his Sister Serena. A Tale
Barbara Hofland – Emily and Her Friends
Mary Martha Sherwood – The History of Little Henry and his Bearer
Leigh Hunt – The Descent of Liberty
René Charles Guilbert de Pixérécourt – The Dog of Montarges
Richard Lalor Sheil – Adelaide, or the Emigrants
Henry Cary – translation of Dante's Divine Comedy (complete in blank verse)
Adam Oehlenschlager – Helge
William Wordsworth – The Excursion
Thomas Hartwell Horne – Introduction to the Study of Bibliography
Percy Bysshe Shelley – A Refutation of Deism
Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert – Die Symbolik der Traüme
Elizabeth Wallbridge – The Dairyman's Daughter
January 15 – Pierre-Jules Hetzel (P. J. Stahl), French publisher and young people's writer (died 1886)
January 17 – Mrs. Henry Wood (Ellen Price), English novelist (died 1887)
February 18 – Samuel Fenton Cary, American author and prohibitionist (died 1900)
March 9 (February 25 O.S.) – Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian poet (died 1861)
June 8 – Charles Reade, English novelist and dramatist (died 1884)
July 23 – George W. M. Reynolds, English popular novelist (died 1879)
August 28 – Sheridan le Fanu, Irish Gothic writer (died 1873)
September 17 – Ferenc Pulszky, Hungarian writer and politician (died 1897)
October 3 – Mikhail Lermontov, Russian poet (died 1841)
November 6 – William Wells Brown, African-American writer (died 1884)
December 27 – Jules Simon, French philosopher (died 1896)
Unknown date – Edward Backhouse Eastwick, Anglo-Indian orientalist and translator (died 1883)
January 4 – Johann Georg Jacobi, German poet (born 1740)
January 27 – Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher (born 1762)
February 24 – Julien Louis Geoffroy, French literary critic (born 1743)
February 27 – Margaret Bingham, English poet and painter (born 1740)
April 12 – Charles Burney, English music historian and musician (born 1726)
July 25 – Charles Dibdin, English novelist, playwright and actor (born 1745)
September 5 – Gottfried Gabriel Bredow, German historian (born 1773)
October 4 – Samuel Jackson Pratt, English poet, playwright and novelist (born 1749)
November 10 – Abbé Aubert, French dramatist, poet and journalist (born 1731)
December 2 – Marquis de Sade, French philosopher, writer and politician (born 1740)
Newdigate Prize – John Leycester Adolphus
The following novels are set during the Napoleonic Wars
Bernard Cornwell – Sharpe's Siege (1987)
C. S. Forester – Lord Hornblower (1946)
1814 in literature Wikipedia
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1814.