|Covid-19|February 1 or 2 – Alexander Selkirk, the original Robinson Crusoe, is rescued from marooning on the Juan Fernández Islands and begins his return to civilisation.
April 12 – The magazine The Tatler is founded by Richard Steele (writing as Isaac Bickerstaff) in London. On July 8 "Mrs. (Phoebe) Crackenthorpe" (perhaps Delarivier Manley) begins publication of The Female Tatler.
April 26 – Act of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland for the provision of public libraries in presbyteries.
May–October 20 – Publication in London (in two volumes, anonymously) of Mrs. Delarivier Manley's roman à clef The New Atalantis (Secret Memoirs and Manners of Several Persons of Quality, of both Sexes, From The New Atalantis, an Island in the Mediterranean), purporting to be translated from Italian. Its satire of the Whigs is so scurrilous that the author is detained for questioning between October 29 and November 5. The work is popular enough to go through seven editions.
June 28 – Historian Gustaf Adlerfelt is killed at the Battle of Poltava; his eyewitness account is continued by his son.
Publication of The Works of Mr William Shakespear edited by dramatist Nicholas Rowe, the first modern edition of Shakespeare's plays, including scene divisions, dramatis personæ and a prefatory account of Shakespeare's life, the first substantial biography of him.
Publication of Ælfric of Eynsham's An English-Saxon Homily on the Birth-day of St. Gregory translated from Old English by Elizabeth Elstob.
Abbé Olivier – Memoirs of the Life and Adventures of Signor Rozelli
Mary Astell – Bart'lemy Fair
Thomas Baker – Reflections on Learning, showing the Insufficiency thereof in its several particulars, in order to evince the usefulness and necessity of Revelation, vol. 1
George Berkeley – An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision
Richard Blackmore – Instructions to Vander Beck
Samuel Cobb – The Female Reign
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury – Sensus Communis (philosophy)
Daniel Defoe – The History of the Union of Great Britain
Charles Gildon – The Golden Spy (satire)
White Kennett – A Vindication of the Church and Clergy of England
William King – Miscellanies in Prose and Verse
John Lawson – A New Voyage to Carolina
Delarivier Manley – The New Atalantis
John Strype – Annals of the Reformation and Establishment of Religion
A Famous Prediction of Merlin
A Project for the Advancement of Religion and the Reformation of Manners ("By a Person of Quality")
A Vindication of Isaac Bickerstaff
William Temple – Memoirs: Part III (ed. Jonathan Swift)
John Trenchard – The Natural History of Superstition
Giambattista Vico – De Nostri Temporis Studiorum Rationae ("On the Study Methods of Our Times")
Anthony Aston – Love in a Hurry
The Busie Body
The Man's Bewitch'd
Colley Cibber – The Rival Fools
Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon – Electre
John Dennis – Appius and Virginia
Thomas d'Urfey – The Modern Prophets
Juan Claudio de la Hoz y Mota – José, salvador de Egipto
Charles Johnson – Love and Liberty (not performed)
Alain-René Lesage – Turcaret
Mary Pix – The Adventures in Madrid
John Reynolds – Death's Vision Represented in a Philosophical Sacred Poem
Poetical Miscellanies: The Sixth Part (also called Tonson's Miscellanies)
Early 1709? – John Armstrong, Scottish poet, satirist and physician (died 1779)
April 14 – Charles Collé, French dramatist
August 7 – Jean-Jacques Lefranc, Marquis de Pompignan, French polymath, author and poet (died 1784)
August 29 – Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gresset, French poet and dramatist (died 1777)
September 3 – Joan Claudi Peiròt, French writer in Occitan (died 1795)
September 18 – Samuel Johnson, English author, critic, lexicographer and poet (died 1784)
September 24 (bapt.) – John Cleland, controversial English novelist (died 1789)
November 1 – Ignatius von Weitenauer, German Jesuit writer, exegete and Orientalist (died 1783)
November 23 – Julien Offray de La Mettrie, French philosopher and physician (died 1751)
December 14 – Caspar Friedrich Hachenberg, German grammarian (died 1793)
Richard Burn, English legal writer (died 1785)
John Bancks, English poet, bookseller and biographer (died 1751)
Probable year of birth – James Adair, Irish historian (died 1783)
January – Robert Gould, English poet (born c. 1660)
February 15 – John Philips, English poet (born 1676)
May 17 – Mary Pix, English novelist and dramatist (born 1666)
June 28 – Gustaf Adlerfelt, Swedish military diarist (died in action, born 1671)
June 30 – Edward Lhuyd, Welsh naturalist and antiquary (born 1660)
September 4 – Jean-François Regnard, French poet and dramatist (born 1655)
December 1 – Abraham a Sancta Clara, Austrian theologian (born 1644)
December 3 – Elizabeth Burnet, English religious writer and philanthropist (born 1661)
Thomas Corneille, French dramatist (born 1625)
Bernadine a Piconio, French theologian and exegete (born 1633)
1709 in literature Wikipedia
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1709.