|Covid-19|March – The Synod of Jerusalem brings together bishops and representatives from the whole of Eastern Orthodox Christendom to discuss Orthodox dogma against the challenge of Protestantism.
March 15 – Charles II of England issues the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, suspending execution of Penal Laws against Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics in his realms; this will be withdrawn the following year under pressure from the Parliament of England.
March 17 – Third Anglo-Dutch War: The Kingdom of England declares war on the Dutch Republic.
April 8 – France declares war on the Dutch Republic, invading the country on April 29.
May 2 – John Maitland becomes Duke of Lauderdale and Earl of March.
June 1 – Münster and Cologne begin their invasion of the Dutch Republic; hence 1672 becomes known as het rampjaar ("the disaster year") in the Netherlands.
June 7 – Third Anglo-Dutch War: Battle of Solebay, an indecisive sea battle between the Dutch Republic and the joined forces of England and France.
June 12 – French forces under king Louis XIV cross the Rhine into the Netherlands. The city of Utrecht is occupied by the French Army.
July 4 – William III of Orange is appointed Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland on July 16.
August 20 – Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland, is slaughtered by a mob in The Hague.
September – Raimondo Montecuccoli and the Great Elector assemble at Halberstadt to attack the French and the bishops of Münster and Cologne in their back. Bernard von Galen withdraws from the city of Groningen slowly to the south.
October – Spain begins construction on the masonry fort that will become Castillo de San Marcos, designed to protect St. Augustine, Florida.
October 18 – The Treaty of Buchach between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is signed.
Richard Hoare becomes a partner in the London goldsmith's business which, as private banking house C. Hoare & Co., will survive through to the 21st century.
January 4 – Hugh Boulter, Irish Archbishop of Armagh (d. 1742)
January 15 – Antoine Houdar de la Motte, French writer (d. 1731)
February 13 – Étienne François Geoffroy, French chemist (d. 1731)
February 26 – Antoine Augustine Calmet, French theologian (d. 1757)
May 1 – Joseph Addison, English politician and writer (d. 1719)
June 9 – Emperor Peter I of Russia (d. 1725)
June 11 – Francesco Antonio Bonporti, Italian priest and composer (d. 1749)
August 2 – Johann Jakob Scheuchzer, Swiss scholar (d. 1733)
September 8 – Nicolas de Grigny, French organist and composer (d. 1703)
October 11 – Pylyp Orlyk, Ukrainian Zaporozhian Cossack starshina, diplomat (d. 1742)
October 21 – Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Italian historian and scholar (d. 1750)
Ann Baynard, English natural philosopher (d. 1697)
January – Denis Gaultier, French lutenist and composer (b. 1603)
January 15 – John Cosin, English clergyman (b. 1594)
February 19 – Charles Chauncy, English-born president of Harvard College (b. 1592)
March – Archibald Armstrong, court jester to James I of England and Charles I of England (year of birth unknown)
April 2 – Pedro Calungsod, Filipino saint (b. 1654)
April 22 – Georg Stiernhielm, Swedish poet (b. 1598)
April 26 – Lionel Lockyer, English alchemist and quack doctor (b. 1600)
May 5 – Samuel Cooper, English painter (b. 1609)
May 8 – Jean-Armand du Peyrer, Comte de Tréville and French Officer (b. 1598)
May 11 – Charles Seton, 2nd Earl of Dunfermline, English royalist (b. 1615)
May 28 – John Trevor, Welsh politician (b. 1626)
June 27 – Roger Twysden, English antiquarian and royalist (b. 1597)
July 3 – Francis Willughby, English biologist (b. 1635)
Johan de Witt, Dutch politician (b. 1625)
Cornelis de Witt, Dutch politician (b. 1623)
September 12 – Tanneguy Lefebvre, French classical scholar (b. 1615)
September 16 – Anne Bradstreet, American colonial writer (b. c. 1612)
October 24 – John Webb, English architect (b. 1611)
November 6 – Heinrich Schütz, German composer (b. 1585)
November 19 – John Wilkins, English Bishop of Chester (b. 1614)
December 6 – King John II Casimir of Poland (b. 1609)
December 7 – Richard Bellingham, Massachusetts colonial magistrate (b. 1592)
date unknown – Semyon Dezhnyov, Pomor navigator (b. c.1605)
1672 (MDCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (dominical letter CB) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday (dominical letter GF) of the Julian calendar, the 1672nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 672nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 72nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1672, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.