|Covid-19|January 30 – Pope Clement VIII (born Ippolito Aldobrandini) succeeds Pope Innocent IX, who died one month earlier, as the 231st pope.
February 7 – George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly, sets fire to Donibristle Castle in Scotland and murders James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray.
March 3 – Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland's oldest university, is founded.
March 14 – Ultimate Pi Day: the largest correspondence between calendar dates and significant digits of pi since the introduction of the Julian calendar.
April 4 – The future Henry IV of France, King designate of Henry III of France, announces in a declaration, so-called "Expedient," his intention to take instruction in and convert to the Catholic religion.
April 13 – Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) open with beginning of the Siege of Busanjin.
April 24 – Battle of Sangju: The Japanese are victorious over the Koreans (Joseon).
April 28 – Battle of Ch'ungju: Japan inflicts a decisive defeat on Korea.
May 7 – The Battle of Okpo is another naval victory for Korea over Japan.
May 29 – Battle of Sacheon: Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin destroys all 13 Japanese ships taking part, using his improved turtle ship for the first time in battle.
June 2 – The Battle of Dangpo is another decisive naval victory for Korea over Japan.
July 8 – Battle of Hansan Island: Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin destroys or captures around 60 Japanese ships without loss in a battle in which around 190 ships take part.
July 20 – The Japanese capture the Korean capital Pyongyang, causing Seonjo to request the assistance of Ming dynasty Chinese forces, who recapture the city a year later.
July 30 – Alonso de Sotomayor petitions the viceroy of Peru for more troops to help resist attacks by Indians and English pirates.
August 9 – English explorer John Davis, commander of the Desire, probably discovers the Falkland Islands.
August 14 – The Koreans are victorious over the Japanese in the naval Battle of Hansan Island.
August 15 (or 19) – The Portuguese galleon Madre de Deus, laden with treasure, is captured by English privateers in the Azores.
September 1 – Battle of Busan: The Korean fleet makes a surprise attack on the Japanese but fails to break their supply lines to Busan.
October 5 – The Koreans are victorious over the Japanese in the naval Siege of Jinju.
November 17 – John III is succeeded by his son Sigismund as King of Sweden.
The Collegium Melitense is founded by Bishop Garagallo.
William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, chief adviser of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is taken seriously ill.
Negotiations begin for the dissolution of the childless marriage of Henry IV of France and Marguerite of Valois.
The Confucian shrine of Munmyo is destroyed by fire.
January 15 – Shah Jahan, 5th Mughal Emperor of India from 1628 to 1658 (d. 1666)
Philippe Alegambe, Belgian Jesuit priest and bibliographer (d. 1652)
Pierre Gassendi, French philosopher and scientist (d. 1655)
February 5 – Vincenzo della Greca, Italian architect (d. 1661)
February 22 – Nicholas Ferrar, Slovenian trader (d. 1637)
February 23 – Balthazar Gerbier, Dutch painter (d. 1663)
March 3 – Lucas de Wael, Belgian painter (d. 1661)
March 20 – Giovanni da San Giovanni, Italian painter (d. 1636)
March 28 – Comenius, Czech teacher and writer (d. 1670)
April 4 – Abraham Elzevir, Dutch printer (d. 1652)
April 9 – Jiří Třanovský, Czech priest and musician (d. 1637)
April 11 – John Eliot, Member of Parliament, Statesman, Vice-Admiral of Devon (d. 1632)
April 15 – Francesco Maria Brancaccio, Catholic cardinal (d. 1675)
April 22 – Wilhelm Schickard, German inventor (d. 1635)
Marcos Ramírez de Prado y Ovando, Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Mexico (1666–1667) (d. 1667)
Sir John Trelawny, 1st Baronet, British baronet (d. 1664)
May 8 – Francis Quarles, English poet most famous for his Emblem book aptly entitled Emblems (d. 1644)
May 14 – Alice Barnham, wife of English scientific philosopher and statesman Francis Bacon (d. 1650)
June 7 – Balthasar Cordier, Jesuit exegete, editor (d. 1650)
June 9 – Jean de Brisacier, French Jesuit (d. 1668)
Sophia Hedwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg, German noblewoman (d. 1642)
Tobias Michael, German composer and cantor (d. 1657)
July 10 – Pierre d'Hozier, French historian (d. 1660)
July 20 – Johan Björnsson Printz (d. 1663)
August 1 – François le Métel de Boisrobert, French poet (d. 1662)
August 7 – Arnauld de Oihenart, Basque historian and poet (d. 1668)
August 11 – Carlo de Tocco, Italian nobleman (d. 1674)
August 13 – William of Nassau-Hilchenbach, German count (d. 1642)
August 16 – Wybrand de Geest, Dutch painter (d. 1661)
August 28 – George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English statesman (d. 1628)
August 29 – Sir Benjamin Ayloffe, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1662)
September 1 – Saint Maria Angela Astorch, Spanish mystic and saint (d. 1665)
September 5 – Jacopo Vignali, Italian painter (d. 1664)
September 15 – Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, Italian Roman Catholic archbishop in the mid-seventeenth century (d. 1653)
September 18 – Jean Guyon, French colonist (d. 1663)
September 20 – Nicholas Stoughton, English politician (d. 1648)
September 21 – Nathaniel Foote, American colonist (d. 1622)
September 24 – Christopher Wandesford, English administrator and politician (d. 1640)
September 25 – Herman Krefting, Norwegian businessman (d. 1651)
October 7 – Henry Wenceslaus, Duke of Oels-Bernstadt, Duke of Bernstadt (1617–1639) (d. 1639)
October 13 – Christian Gueintz, teacher and writer-grammarian (d. 1650)
October 22 – Gustav Horn, Count of Pori, Swedish/Finnish soldier and politician (d. 1657)
October 30 – Giulio Benso, Italian painter (d. 1668)
Gerard van Honthorst (d. 1656)
Albrecht von Kalckstein, German noble (d. 1667)
November 5 – Charles Chauncy, English-born president of Harvard College (d. 1671)
November 13 – Antonio Grassi, Italian priest and blessed (d. 1671)
November 28 – Hong Taiji, Emperor of China (d. 1643)
December 5 – Thomas Bennet, successful civil lawyer (d. 1670)
December 6 – William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle (d. 1676)
December 9 – Krzysztof Arciszewski, Polish-Lithuanian noble (d. 1656)
December 29 – Johannes Matthiae Gothus, Swedish academic (d. 1670)
Catalina de Erauso, Spanish-Mexican nun and soldier (died 1650)
Richard Bellingham, colonial magistrate (died 1672)
John Hacket, English churchman (died 1670)
Ingen, Chinese Zen Buddhist poet, and calligrapher (died 1673)
John Jenkins, English mathematician (died 1678)
John Oldham, early English settler in Massachusetts (died 1636)
Walatta Petros, saint in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (died 1642)
Sara Copia Sullam, Italian poet and writer (died 1641)
Probable – Étienne Brûlé, French explorer in Canada (died 1632)
February 2 – Ana de Mendoza, Princess of Eboli, Spanish noble (b. 1540)
February 29 – Alessandro Striggio, Italian composer (b. 1540)
March 5 – Michiel Coxie, Flemish painter (b. 1499)
April 13 – Bartolomeo Ammannati, Italian architect and sculptor (b. 1511)
April 27 – Girolamo Muziano, Italian painter (b. 1532)
May 17 – Paschal Baylon, Spanish mystic and saint (b. 1540)
July 1 – Marc'Antonio Ingegneri, Italian composer (b. c. 1547)
July 4 – Francesco Bassano the Younger, Italian painter (b. 1559)
July 26 – Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron, French soldier (b. 1524)
August 25 – William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) (b. 1532)
September 3 – Robert Greene, English writer (b. 1558)
September 13 – Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (b. 1533)
October 28 – Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, Flemish diplomat
November 17 – King John III of Sweden (b. 1537)
November 27 – Nakagawa Hidemasa, Japanese military commander (b. 1568)
December 3 – Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (b. 1545)
Moderata Fonte, Italian poet, writer and philosopher (b. 1555)
Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, Spanish explorer (b. 1532)
1592 (MDXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter ED) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday (dominical letter BA) of the Julian calendar, the 1592nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 592nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1592, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.