|Covid-19|January 22 – Battle of Ridaniya: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey.
February 3 – Cairo is captured by the Ottoman Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate falls.
March 16 – The Fifth Council of the Lateran ends.
August 15 – Portuguese merchant Fernão Pires de Andrade meets Ming dynasty Chinese officials through an interpreter at the Pearl River estuary and lands at what is now in the jurisdiction of Hong Kong. Although the first European trade expeditions to China took place in 1513 and 1516 by Jorge Álvares and Rafael Perestrello, respectively, Andrade's mission is the first official diplomatic mission of a European power to China commissioned by a ruler of Europe (Manuel I of Portugal).
October 31 – Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther publishes his 95 Theses (posting them on the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church).
Organized western merchants make their first contact with China after Rafael Perestrello was the first to land in southern China in 1513; European merchants venture into port at Guangzhou and trade with Chinese merchants there.
Grand Prince Vasili III of Muscovy conquers Ryazan.
Selim I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, conquers Egypt and declares himself Caliph.
A third outbreak of the sweating sickness in England hits Oxford and Cambridge.
January 17 – Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, English Duke (d. 1554)
January 17 – Antonio Scandello, Italian composer (d. 1580)
January 30 – Joannes Aurifaber Vratislaviensis, German theologian (d. 1568)
February 2 – Gotthard Kettler, Duke of Courland and Semigallia (d. 1587)
February 2 – Hayashi Narinaga, Samurai (d. 1606)
February 12 – Luigi Cornaro, Italian cardinal (d. 1584)
March 22 – Gioseffo Zarlino, Italian composer (d. 1590)
March 29 – Carlo Carafa, Italian cardinal (d. 1561)
May 1 – Svante Stensson Sture, Swedish count (d. 1567)
June 18 – Emperor Ōgimachi, Japanese emperor (d. 1593)
June 29 – Rembert Dodoens, Flemish botanist (d. 1585)
July 10 – Odet de Coligny, French cardinal and Protestant (d. 1571)
July 16 – Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk, English duchess (d. 1559)
July 16 – Lady Frances Brandon, granddaughter of Henry VII
July 20 – Peter Ernst I von Mansfeld-Vorderort, Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands (d. 1604)
August 20 – Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, statesman, Roman Catholic cardinal (d. 1586)
August 23 – Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1545)
September 6 – Francisco de Holanda, Portuguese artist (d. 1585)
October 17 – Amalia of Cleves, Sister to Anne of Cleves (d. 1586)
October 18 – Manuel da Nóbrega, priest (d. 1570)
December 15 – Giacomo Gaggini, Italian artist (d. 1598)
Jacques Pelletier du Mans, French mathematician (d. 1582)
Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, English aristocrat (d. 1547)
January 5 – Francesco Raibolini, Italian painter (b. c. 1450)
January 23 – Hadım Sinan Pasha, Ottoman (Turkish) grand vizier
March 7 – Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal (b. 1482)
March 26 – Heinrich Isaac, Flemish composer (b. c. 1450)
September 21 – Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, mistress of Christian II of Denmark
October 31 – Fra Bartolomeo, Italian artist (b. 1472)
November 8 – Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, Spanish cardinal and statesman (b. 1436)
November 25 – Marcus Musurus, Greek scholar and philosopher (b. 1470)
Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, Spanish conquistador
Badi' al-Zaman, Timurid ruler of Herat
Luca Pacioli, Italian mathematician (b. 1445)
Gaspar van Weerbeke, Dutch composer (b. 1445)
Year 1517 (MDXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.