|Covid-19|January – Catherine of Aragon gives birth to her first child, a stillborn daughter.
January 23 – An 18-year-old Henry VIII of England jousts anonymously at Richmond, Surrey and draws applause before revealing himself.
February 27 – Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Goa.
May 12 – The Prince of Anhua rebellion begins when Zhu Zhifan, Prince of Anhua, kills all the officials invited to a banquet and declares his intent on ousting the powerful Ming dynasty eunuch Liu Jin during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor in China.
May 30 – Rebel leader Zhu Zhifan is defeated and captured by commander Qiu Yue, ending the Prince of Anhua rebellion.
July – The Holy League, formed to defend the Italian States, attacks French-occupied Genoa.
December 2 – Battle of Marv: Shah Ismail I defeats the Uzbek forces of Shaybani Khan in Khorasan.
The Grand Prince of Moscow Vasili III conquers Pskov
Peter Henlein builds the first pocket watch.
Sir Thomas More becomes undersheriff of the City of London.
Paolo Cortese publishes De Cardinalatu, a manual for cardinals, including advice on palatial architecture – which inspires Thomas Wolsey in his construction work at Hampton Court Palace.
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa moves to Italy.
Sunflowers are brought to Europe.
February 24 – Costanzo II Sforza, Italian noble (d. 1512)
March 25 – Guillaume Postel, French linguist (d. 1581)
March 30 – Antonio de Cabezón, Spanish composer and organist (d. 1566)
April 2 – Ashikaga Yoshiharu, Japanese shogun (d. 1550)
June 6 – Giovanni Battista Cicala, Italian cardinal (d. 1570)
July 22 – Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence (d. 1537)
August 11 – Margaret Paleologa, Marchioness of Montferrat in her own right (1531–1540) (d. 1566)
August 24 – Elisabeth of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Calenberg-Göttingen (1525–1540) (d. 1558)
Rowland Taylor, English Protestant martyr (d. 1555)
John Caius, English physician (d. 1573)
October 25 – Renée of France, French princess (d. 1574)
October 28 – Francis Borgia, Spanish General of the Jesuits (d. 1572)
December 28 – Nicholas Bacon, English politician (d. 1579)
Jan Matsys, Flemish painter (d. 1575)
Jörg Breu the Younger, German painter (d. 1547)
Ferenc Dávid, Hungarian founder of the Unitarian Church (d. 1579)
Matsunaga Hisahide, Japanese warlord (d. 1577)
Solomon Luria, Polish-born Kabbalist (d. 1574)
Oda Nobuhide, Japanese warlord (d. 1551)
Bernard Palissy, French potter and writer
Ambroise Paré, French surgeon (d. 1590)
Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, French naval officer (d. 1571)
Pierre de Manchicourt, Flemish composer (d. 1564)
Gracia Mendes Nasi, Ottoman businessperson and philanthropist (d. 1569)
Beatriz de la Cueva, Governor of Guatemala (d. 1541)
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Spanish conquistador (d. 1554)
Tullia d'Aragona, Italian poet, author and philosopher (d. 1556)
Aloysius Lilius, Italian inventor of the Gregorian calendar (d. 1576)
Luis de Morales, Spanish religious painter (d. 1586)
Lope de Rueda, Spanish dramatist and author (d. 1565)
Lawrence Sheriff, Elizabethan gentleman and grocer (d. 1567)
Claudio Veggio, Italian composer
John Knox, Scottish reformer (d. 1572 )
February 28 – Juan de la Cosa, Spanish cartographer and explorer (b. c. 1460)
March 1 – Francisco de Almeida, Portuguese soldier and explorer (b. c. 1450)
March 10 – Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, German preacher (b. 1445)
March 12 – Mihnea cel Rău, Prince of Wallachia (b. c.1460)
May 17 – Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (b. 1445)
July 10 – Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus (b. 1454)
July 14 – Arthur Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (b. 1509) Heir to the Scottish throne.
July 27 – Giovanni Sforza, condottiere (b. 1466)
Edmund Dudley, English statesman (b. c. 1462)
Richard Empson, English statesman
September 15 – Saint Catherine of Genoa (b. 1447)
September 18 – Ursula of Brandenburg, Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1488)
November 11 – Bohuslav Hasištejnský z Lobkovic, Bohemian writer (b. 1461)
December 2 – Muhammad Shaybani, Khan of Bukhara (b. 1451)
December 14 – Friedrich of Saxony (b. 1473)
December 31 – Bianca Maria Sforza, wife of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1472)
Agüeybaná, Taino chief
Ambrogio Calepino, Italian lexicographer (b. 1450)
Giorgione, Italian painter (b. c. 1477)
Florian Zamoyski, Polish noble
Mandukhai Khatun, Mongolian queen
Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.