|Covid-19|January 28–March 18 – Revolt of Llywelyn Bren against English rule in Wales.
February 22 – Battle of Picotin between Ferdinand of Majorca and the forces of Matilda of Hainaut
July 5 – Battle of Manolada between the Burgundian and Majorcan claimants of the Principality of Achaea.
August 7 – Pope John XXII succeeds Pope Clement V as the 196th pope.
August 10 – Second Battle of Athenry ends with over 5,000 dead, and Norman rule retained in Ireland.
The Great Famine of 1315–17 is at its peak.
The Pound sterling experiences the greatest year of inflation in its history, at 100.04 percent, losing over half its value.
The Au peninsula in Switzerland is first mentioned as "Owe" belonging to the commandry of the Knights Hospitaller in Bubikon.
April or May – Magnus IV, king of Sweden 1319–1364 (d. 1374)
March 2 – King Robert II of Scotland (d. 1390)
May 14 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1378)
November 7 – Simeon of Russia (d. 1353)
November 15 – King John I of France (d. November 20)
date unknown – Fa Ngum, King of Lan Xang (d. 1393)
March 2 – Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert I of Scotland (b. 1296)
March 12 – King Stefan Dragutin of Serbia
June 5 – King Louis X of France (b. 1289)
July 5 – Infante Ferdinand of Majorca (b. 1278)
August 2 – Louis of Burgundy, Prince of Achaea (b. 1297)
August 10 – Felim mac Aedh Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht (in battle)
November 20 – King John I of France (b. November 15)
Guillaume Guiart, French chronicler and poet
Guo Shoujing, Chinese astronomer and mathematician
Vytenis, Grand Prince of Lithuania
Alauddin Khilji, the sultan of Delhi, India
Year 1316 (MCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.