Samiksha Jaiswal (Editor)

12th United States Congress

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House Speaker:  Henry Clay (DR)
House Majority:  Democratic-Republican
Senate Majority:  Democratic-Republican
12th United States Congress
Senate President  George Clinton (DR) until April 20, 1812 Vacant from April 20, 1812
Senate Pres. pro tem:  William H. Crawford (DR)
Members:  36 Senators 143 Representatives 4 Non-voting members

The Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1811, to March 4, 1813, during the third and fourth years of James Madison's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Second Census of the United States in 1800. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.


Major events

  • November 6, 1811: Battle of Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh's forces
  • December 16, 1811: New Madrid earthquake
  • April 4, 1812: President Madison enacted a 90-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom
  • April 20, 1812: Vice President George Clinton died
  • June 18, 1812: War of 1812: United States declared war on Great Britain
  • August 16, 1812: War of 1812: Detroit surrendered to the British.
  • October 13, 1812: War of 1812: the Battle of Queenston Heights
  • November 5, 1812: Elections of 1812:
  • United States presidential election, 1812: Incumbent James Madison beat DeWitt Clinton.
  • United States Senate elections, 1812
  • United States House of Representatives elections, 1812
  • States admitted and territories organized

  • April 30, 1812: Louisiana was admitted as a state into the Union. It was formerly known as the Territory of Orleans
  • June 4, 1812: Missouri Territory was organized. It was formed from the remainder of the Territory of Orleans
  • Party summary

    The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


    During this congress, two new Senate seats were added for the new state of Louisiana.

    House of Representatives

    During this congress, one new House seat was added for the new state of Louisiana.


  • President: George Clinton (DR), until April 20, 1812; vacant thereafter.
  • President pro tempore: William H. Crawford (DR)
  • House of Representatives

  • Speaker: Henry Clay (DR)
  • Members

    This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.


    Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election.. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1814; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1816; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1812

    House of Representatives

    The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

    Changes in membership

    The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • replacements: 1
  • Democratic-Republicans: no net change
  • Federalists: no net change
  • deaths: 0
  • resignations: 4
  • interim appointments: 1
  • seats of newly admitted states: 2
  • vacancies:1
  • Total seats with changes: 6
  • House of Representatives

  • replacements: 3
  • Democratic-Republicans: no net change
  • Federalists: no net change
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 5
  • contested election: 1
  • seats of newly admitted states: 1
  • vacancies: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 10
  • Committees

    Lists of committees and their party leaders.


  • Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate
  • National University
  • Whole
  • House of Representatives

  • Accounts
  • Apportionment of Representatives (Select)
  • Bankruptcy (Select)
  • Claims
  • Commerce and Manufactures
  • District of Columbia
  • Elections
  • Post Office and Post Roads
  • Public Lands
  • Revisal and Unfinished Business
  • Rules (Select)
  • Standards of Official Conduct
  • Ways and Means
  • Whole
  • Joint committees

  • Enrolled Bills
  • Employees

  • Architect of the Capitol: Benjamin Latrobe
  • Librarian of Congress: Patrick Magruder
  • Senate

  • Chaplain: John Brackenridge (Presbyterian)
  • Secretary: Samuel A. Otis
  • Sergeant at Arms:
  • James Mathers, died
  • Mountjoy Bayly, elected November 6, 1811
  • House of Representatives

  • Chaplain:
  • Nicholas Snethen (Methodist)
  • Jesse Lee (Methodist), elected November 2, 1812
  • Clerk: Patrick Magruder
  • Doorkeeper: Thomas Claxton
  • Sergeant at Arms: Thomas Dunn
  • References

    12th United States Congress Wikipedia

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