This article concerns the period 9 BC – 1 BC, the last nine years before the Anno Domini era, not the last ten years.
Roman EmpirePannonia is incorporated in the Roman Empire as part of Illyria.
The Ara Pacis ("Altar of Augustan Peace"), voted by the Senate four years earlier, is dedicated.
Nero Claudius Drusus begins a campaign against the Marcomanni, but dies soon after a fall from his horse.
Tiberius Claudius Nero continues the conquest of Germania.
Roman EmpireKing Maroboduus becomes ruler of the Marcomanni and fights against the Roman Empire expansion in Bohemia.
Arminius, son of a Cheruscan chieftain, is taken hostage to Rome where he receives a military education.
Roman EmpireTiberius Claudius Nero and Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso are Roman Consuls.
Roman EmpireEmperor Augustus sent ferrets (named viverrae by Plinius) to the Balearic Islands to control the rabbit plagues.
Tiberius Claudius Nero is sent to Armenia, then retires to Rhodes.
Judea Province, Roman EmpireAfter the death of Herod the Great, there is unrest in his kingdom. His son, Herod Archelaus becomes the new ruler of Judea. Herod Antipas becomes tetrarch of Galilee and Perea.
The Governor of Syria, Publius Quintilius Varus, assembles three of his four legions, including Legio X Fretensis, and marched down to Jerusalem from Antioch to restore order. He crucifies 2,000 Jewish rebels.
Roman EmpireKing Maroboduus of the Marcomanni organized in the area later known as Bohemia a confederation of Germanic tribes, with the Hermunduri, Lombards, Semnoni and Vandals.
Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus commands the Roman army in Germania and crossed the Elbe. He builds the pontes longi (latin- meaning long bridge) over the marshes between the Rhine and the Ems.
Roman EmpireEmperor Augustus is proclaimed Pater Patriae, or "father of the country" by the Roman Senate; this bestowed title is the logical consequence and final proof of Augustus' supreme position as princeps, the first in charge over the Roman state.
Julia the Elder, daughter of Augustus, is exiled on charges of treason and adultery to Pandateria; her mother Scribonia accompanies her.
The Aqua Alsietina Roman aqueduct is constructed.
ParthiaPhraates V becomes king of the Parthian Empire, after he and his mother "the goddess Musa" have murdered his father Phraates IV.
Roman EmpireEmperor Augustus sent his stepson Gaius Caesar as army commander to the East and made a peace treaty with Phraates V on an island in the river Euphrates.
Ovid writes the Ars Amatoria.
ChinaEmperor, Ai of Han dies and is succeeded by his cousin Ping of Han, a boy who is nine years old. Wang Mang is appointed regent by the Grand Empress Dowager Wang.
Former regent Dong Xian commits suicide.
ReligionBirth of Jesus, in the religion of Christians and Mormons, was conceived 25 March and born on 25 December, as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his anno Domini era; according to most scholars, Dionysius used the word "incarnation", but it is not known whether he meant conception or birth. However, at least one scholar thinks Dionysius placed the incarnation of Jesus in the next year, AD 1. Most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, themselves placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).
Tigranes IV, King of Armenia, r. 12–1 BC
Erato, Queen of Armenia, 8–5 BC, 2 BC – AD 2, AD 6–11
Artavasdes III, King of Armenia, r. 5–2 BC
Ariobarzan of Atropatene, Client King of Armenia, r. 1 BC – AD 2
Chend Di, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 32–7 BC
Ai Di, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 7–1 BC
Ping Di, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 1 BC – AD 5
Wang Mang, Chinese statesman and future emperor of China
Dong Xian, Han Dynasty Chinese official under Emperor Ai of Han
Antiochus III, King of Commagene, r. 12 BC – AD 17
Arminius, Germanic war chief (18/17 BC – AD 21)
Arshak II, King of Caucasian Iberia, r. 20 BC – AD 1
Strato II and Strato III, co-kings of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, r. 25 BC – AD 10
Lugaid Riab nDerg, Legendary High King of Ireland, r. 33–9 BC
Conchobar Abradruad, Legendary High King of Ireland, r. 9–8 BC
Crimthann Nia Náir, Legendary High King of Ireland, r. (8 BC – AD 9)
Suinin, Legendary Emperor of Japan, r. 29 BC – AD 70
Amanishakheto, King of Kush, r. 10–1 BC
Natakamani, King of Kush, r. 1 BC – AD 20
Ma'nu III, King of Osroene, r. 23–4 BC
Abgar V, King of Osroene, r. 4 BC-AD 7, AD 13–50
Phraates IV, king of the Parthian Empire, r. 38–2 BC
Phraates V, king of the Parthian Empire, r. 2 BC – AD 4
Musa of Parthia, mother and co-ruler with Phraates V, r. 2 BC – AD 4
Caesar Augustus, Roman Emperor (27 BC – AD 14)
Nero Claudius Drusus, Roman Consul, in office 9 BC
Gaius Caesar, Roman general
Livy, Roman historian
Ovid, Roman poet
Quirinius, Roman nobleman and politician
Tiberius, Roman general, statesman, and future emperor.
Herod the Great, Client king of Judea
Hillel the Elder, Jewish scholar and Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in office c. 31 BC – AD 9
Shammai, Jewish scholar and Av Beit Din of the Sanhedrin, in office 20 BC – AD 20
Hyeokgeose, King of Silla, r. 57 BC – AD 4
Emperor Ping of Han (d. AD 6)
Asconius Pedianus, Roman grammarian and historian
8 BC – Empress Wang (d. AD 23)
5 BC – Guangwu, Emperor of China (d. AD 57)
4 BC – Herod Philip II, tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis
Seneca the Younger, Roman statesman (d. AD 65)
Servius Sulpicius Galba, Roman general and emperor (d. AD 69)
Ptolemy of Mauretania, client king of Mauretania (d. AD 40)
St. Matthew, Figure of early Christianity, specifically an Apostle
John the Baptist, Jewish religious teacher
Jesus, Jewish teacher and central figure of Christianity (6 BC? – AD 30)
9 BC – Nero Claudius Drusus, Roman statesman and military commander
Horace, Roman poet (b. 65 BC)
Gaius Maecenas, Roman politician and patron of the arts (b. 70 BC)
Liu Xiang, Chinese scholar
Polemon, client king of Cilicia, Pontus, Colchis and the Bosporan Kingdom.
Emperor Cheng of Han (b. 51 BC)
Consort Zhao Hede
Aristobulus IV, Judean Prince (son of Herod the Great)
Geumwa, king of Dongbuyeo (located on the Korean Peninsula)
Consort Ban, Chinese concubine of Emperor Cheng of Han, also a poet and scholar (born 48 BC)
Consort Feng Yuan (b. c. 48 BC)
5 BC – Curia, wife and loyal supporter of Quintus Lucretius Vespillo
Antipater, Judean prince (son of Herod the Great)
Herod the Great, client king of Judea (b. 73 BC)
Marcus Tullius Tiro, freedman of Cicero
3 BC – Imperial consort Fu of the Chinese Han Dynasty
Jullus Antonius, Roman Consul
Phraates IV, King of Parthia
Dong Xian, Han Dynasty Chinese official under Emperor Ai of Han (b. 23 BC)
Emperor Ai of Han (b. 27 BC)
Empress Zhao Feiyan (b. 32 BC)
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