This article covers the first nine years of the Anno Domini era, which began on January 1st, AD 1 and ended on December 31st, AD 9.
Roman EmpireTiberius, under order of Augustus, quells revolts in Germania (AD 1–5).
Gaius Caesar and Lucius Aemilius Paullus are appointed consuls.
Gaius Caesar marries Livilla, daughter of Antonia Minor and Nero Claudius Drusus, in an effort to gain prestige.
Quirinius becomes a chief advisor to Gaius in Armenia. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, whose father Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus had served as consul in 16 BC, also serves in the Armenia campaigns.
Areius Paianeius becomes Archon of Athens.
AsiaConfucius is given his first royal title (posthumous name) of Lord Baochengxun Ni.
Sapadbizes, Yuezhi prince and King of Kush (Bactria), dies. Heraios succeeds him as king.
AfricaThe Kingdom of Aksum, centered in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea, is founded (approximate date).
Amanishakheto, Queen of Kush (Nubia), dies. Her son, Natakamani, becomes King of Kush.
AmericasMoxos ceases to be a significant religious area in South America (approximate date).
The Teotihuacan culture in Mesoamerica begins (approximate date).
The Olmec 2 phase of the Olmec civilization begins; San Lorenzo and La Venta grow in population.
Arts and sciencesThe poem Metamorphoses is written by Ovid.
ReligionBirth of Jesus, as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar. However, most scholars think Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC. Furthermore, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).
Roman EmpireFollowing the death of Lucius Caesar, Livia Drusilla persuades Augustus to allow her son Tiberius back into Rome as a private citizen, after six years in enforced retirement on Rhodes.
Gaius Caesar meets with Phraates V, the king of Parthia on the Euphrates. Rather than invade, Gaius Caesar concludes peace with the Parthians—Parthia recognizes Roman claims to Armenia.
Publius Alfenus Varus and Publius Vinicius become Roman Consuls.
EuropeCedeides becomes Archon of Athens.
AfricaJuba II of Mauretania joins Gaius Caesar in Armenia as a military advisor. It is during this period that he meets Glaphyra, a Cappadocian princess and the former wife of Alexandros of Judea, a brother of Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Judea, and becomes enamoured of her.
AsiaWang Mang begins a program of personal aggrandizement, restoring marquess titles to past imperial princes and introducing a pension system for retired officials. Restrictions are placed on the Emperor's mother, Consort Wei and members of the Wei Clan.
The first census is concluded in China after having begun the year before: final numbers show a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history.
The Chinese census shows nearly one million people living in Vietnam.
Roman EmpireThe rule of emperor Augustus is renewed for a ten-year period.
Augustus adopts his grandson, Gaius Caesar, with the expectation that he will succeed him. Gaius is made proconsul and is sent on a special mission to the East.
Lucius Aelius Lamia and Marcus Valerius Messalla Messallinus are consuls of Rome.
EuropeMenneas becomes Archon of Athens.
Five German tribes are unified by Marbod, King of the Marcomanni. The unification of the five tribes represents a direct threat to Rome in the area that will become Silesia and Saxony.
East AsiaKing Yuri of Goguryeo moves the capital from Jolbon Fortress to Gungnae City.
Wang Mang foils a plot by his son, Wang Yu, his brother-in-law, Lu Kuan, and the Wei clan to oust him from the regent's position. Wang Yu and Lu Kuan are killed in the purge that follows.
Roman EmpireEmperor Caesar Augustus summons Tiberius to Rome, and names him his heir and future emperor. At the same time, Agrippa Postumus, the last son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, is also adopted and named as Augustus' heir.
Tiberius also adopts Germanicus as his own heir.
Sextus Aelius Catus becomes consul.
The Lex Aelia Sentia regulates the manumission of slaves.
A pact of non-aggression and friendship is signed between the Roman Empire, represented by Tiberius, and the German tribe the Cherusci, represented by their King Segimer. Arminius and Flavus, sons of Segimer, are brought into the Roman army as leaders of the auxiliary troops.
Julia the Elder returns from exile to live in Rhegium in disgrace.
Augustus pardons Gnaeus Cornelius Cinna Magnus, along with Aemilia Lepida, the granddaughter of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, for alleged involvement in a conspiracy against the emperor.
Marcus Plautius Silvanus is appointed as proconsul of Asia.
Middle EastKing Phraataces and Queen Musa of Parthia are overthrown and killed, the crown being offered to Orodes III of Parthia—the beginning of the interregnum.
KoreaNamhae Chachaung succeeds Bak Hyeokgeose as king of the Korean kingdom of Silla (traditional date).
ChinaEmperor Ping of Han marries Empress Wang (Ping), daughter of Wang Mang, cementing his influence.
Wang Mang is given the title "superior duke".
Arts and sciencesNicolaus of Damascus writes the 15-volume History of the World.
Roman EmpireRome acknowledges Cunobelinus, King of the Catuvellauni, as King of Britain.
The Germanic Tribes of Cimbri and Charydes send ambassadors to Rome.
Gnaeus Cornelius Cinna Magnus and Lucius Valerius Messalla Volesus (or Gaius Ateius Capito) become Roman consuls.
Tiberius conquers Germania Inferior.
Agrippina the Elder marries Germanicus, her second cousin.
Livilla marries Drusus Julius Caesar, Tiberius's son.
Polycharmus Azenius becomes Archon of Athens.
Roman EmpireHerod Archelaus, ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, is deposed and banished to Vienne in Gaul.
Iudaea and Moesia become Roman provinces destroying the Dardani; Syria is guarded by legions X Fretensis, III Gallica, VI Ferrata, and XII Fulminata.
Emperor Augustus sets up a special treasury, the aerarium militare (170 million sestertii), to pay bonuses to retiring legion veterans.
Tiberius makes Carnuntum his base of operations against Maroboduus; The Roman legion XX Valeria Victrix fights with Tiberius against the Marcomanni.
The Illyrian tribes in Dalmatia and Pannonia start the Great Illyrian Revolt.
The building of a Roman fort signifies the origin of the city of Wiesbaden.
Caecina Severus is made governor of Moesia.
Publius Sulpicius Quirinius becomes Governor of Syria and nominally of Judea.
Quirinius conducts a census in Judea (according to Josephus), which results in a revolt in the province, led by Judas of Galilee, and supported by the Pharisee Zadok. The revolt is repressed, and the rebels are crucified, but it results in the birth of the Zealot movement, the members of which regard the God of Judaism as their only master.
Due to a food shortage in Rome, Augustus doubles the grain rations distributed to the people.
Due to a catastrophic fire in Rome, the barracks system is created to allow quicker response in the case of emergencies.
Augustus banishes Agrippa Postumus, one of his adopted sons, to the island of Planasia.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Arruntius become Roman consuls.
Theophilus becomes Archon of Athens. There are no further records of Archons until after 23.
ChinaJanuary – Some Chinese fear for the life of the young, ailing Emperor Ping Di as the planet Mars disappears behind the moon this month.
February 3 – The boy emperor, Ping Di, dies of unexpected causes at age 14; Wang Mang alone selects the new emperor, the Ruzi Ying, age 2, starting the Jushe era of the Han dynasty.
Candidates for government office must take civil-service examinations.
The imperial Liu clan suspect the intentions of Wang Mang and foment agrarian rebellions during the course of Ruzi Ying's reign. The first of these is led by Liu Chong, Marquess of Ang-Zong (a/k/a Marquis of An-chung), with a small force starting in May or June.
Roman EmpireIllyrian tribes in Pannonia and Dalmatia continue the Great Illyrian Revolt against Roman rule.
Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus dismisses the Judean ethnarch Herod Archelaus.
Publius Quinctilius Varus is appointed governor of Germania, charged with organizing Germania between the Rhine and Elbe rivers. He carries out a census, devises tributes and recruits soldiers, all of which create dissension among the Germanic tribes.
Abgarus of Edessa is deposed as king of Osroene.
Construction of the Temple of Concord begins.
AsiaVonones I becomes ruler of Parthia.
Zhai Yi, Governor of the Commandery of Dong (modern Puyang, Henan) declares Liu Zin, Marquess of Yang Xiang (modern Tai'an, Shandong), emperor. This proves to be the largest of the rebellions against Emperor Ruzi of Han.
Wang Mang puts down the rebellion during the winter. The Zhai is captured and executed while Liu Xin escapes.
Roman EmpireAugust 3 – Roman general Tiberius defeats the Illyrians in Dalmatia on the River Bathinus, but the Great Illyrian Revolt continues.
Vipsania Julia is exiled. Lucius Aemilius Paullus and his family are disgraced. Augustus breaks off the engagement of Claudius to Paullus' daughter Aemilia Lepida. An effort is made to betrothe Claudius to Livia Medullina.
Marcus Furius Camillus, Sextus Nonius Quinctilianus, and Lucius Apronius become Roman consuls.
Roman poet Ovid is banished from Rome and exiled to the Black Sea near Tomis (present-day Constanța).
EuropeTincomarus, deposed king of the Atrebates, flees Britain for Rome; Eppillus becomes king.
Middle EastVonones I becomes king of Parthia.
AsiaStart of Chushi era of the Chinese Han dynasty.
In China, Wang Mang crushes a rebellion by Chai I, and on the winter solstice (which has been dated January 10 of the following year) officially assumes the title emperor, establishing the short-lived Xin dynasty.
ArtsAfter completing Metamorphoses, Ovid begins the Fasti (Festivals), 6 books that detail the first 6 months of the year and provide valuable insights into the Roman Calendar.
ChinaEmpress Wang is given the title of Duchess Dowager of Ding'an, while Ruzi Ying, the former Emperor of Han, becomes the Duke of Ding'an. Ruzi Ying is placed under house arrest.
Lui Kuai, Marquess of Zuziang, attacks the Dukedom of Fuchong under his brother Liu Ying. Lui Kuai is defeated and killed in the ensuing battle.
January 10 – Wang Mang founds the short-lived Xin dynasty in China (until AD 25). Wang Mang names his wife Empress Wang (Xin dynasty) and his son Wang Lin Crown Prince and heir to the throne.
Roman EmpireClaudius marries Plautia Urgulanilla following the death of Livia Medullina.
Illyria is turned into a province after the Great Illyrian Revolt is defeated.
The Rhine river is established as the boundary between the Latin- and German-speaking worlds, following the defeat of the Roman army, under the command of Varus, at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
Legio II Augusta, XX Valeria Victrix, and XIII Gemina move to Germany to replace Legio XIX and the others destroyed at Teutoburg.
Pannonia (modern-day Hungary) submits to Roman rule.
In order to increase the number of marriages, and ultimately the population, the Lex Papia Poppaea is adopted in Italy. This law prohibits celibacy and childless relationships.
Roman finances become strained following the Danubian insurrection and Varus' defeat in Germany, where three Roman legions were destroyed. This results in the levying of two new taxes: five percent of inheritances, and one percent on sales.
The Catuvellauni attack the Trinovantes and capture Camulodunum.
LiteratureOvid completes Ibis (single poem).
Erato, Artaxiad Dynasty Queen of Armenia, 8–5 BC, 2 BC – 2 AD, 6–11
Ariobarzan of Atropatene, Client King of Armenia, r. 1 BC – 2 AD
Artavazd V, Client King of Armenia, r. 2–11
Tigranes V, Artaxiad Dynasty King of Armenia, r. 2–6
Ping Di, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 1 BC – 5 AD
Ruzi Ying, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 6–9
Wang Mang, Usurper Emperor of the short-lived Xin Dynasty in China r. 9–23
Antiochus III, King of Commagene, r. 12 BC – 17 AD
Arminius, German war chief
Arshak II, King of Caucasian Iberia, r. 20 BC-1 AD
Pharasmanes I, King of Caucasian Iberia, r. 1-58
Strato II and Strato III, co-kings of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, r. 25 BC – 10 AD
Crimthann Nia Náir, Legendary High King of Ireland, r. 8 BC – AD 9
Cairbre Cinnchait, Legendary High King of Ireland, r. 9–14
Suinin, Legendary Emperor of Japan, r. 29 BC – 70 AD
Natakamani, King of Kush, r. (1 BC – AD 20)
Abgar V of Edessa, King of Osroene, 4 BC–AD 7, 13–50
Ma'nu IV, King of Osroene, 7–13
Phraates V, King of the Parthian Empire, r. 2 BC – 4 AD
Musa of Parthia, mother and co-ruler with Phraates V, r. 2 BC – 4 AD
Orodes III, King of the Parthian Empire, r. 4–6
Vonones I, King of the Parthian Empire, r. 8–12
Artabanus of Parthia, pretender to the Parthian throne and future King of Parthia
Caesar Augustus, Roman Emperor (27 BC – AD 14)
Gaius Caesar, Roman general
Livy, Roman historian
Ovid, Roman poet
Quirinius, Roman nobleman and politician
Hillel the Elder, Jewish scholar and Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in office c. 31 BC – 9 AD
Shammai, Jewish scholar and Av Beit Din of the Sanhedrin, in office 20 BC – 20 AD
Tiberius, Roman general, statesman, and future emperor
Hyeokgeose, King of Silla, r. 57 BC – 4 AD
Namhae, King of Silla, r. 4–24
AD 1Lucius Annaeus Gallio, Roman proconsul (d. AD 65)
Quinctilius Varus, son of Publius Quinctilius Varus and Claudia Pulchra (d. c. AD 27)
AD 2Deng Yu, Han Dynasty general and statesman (d. AD 58)
AD 3Ban Biao, Chinese historian (d. AD 54)
AD 4Columella, Roman writer (d. AD 70)
Daemusin of Goguryeo, King of Goguryeo (d. AD 44)
Some believe that Jesus of Nazareth was actually born this year
AD 5Julia, daughter of Drusus Julius Caesar and Livilla (d. AD 43)
Ruzi Ying, great-grandson of Emperor Xuan Han, Emperor of China (d. AD 25)
Yin Lihua, Empress of China (d. AD 64)
Saint Paul (approximate date) (d. AD 67)
AD 6Jesus, usually considered the latest possible year of birth, based on the Quirinius census in that year (historicity questionable)
Nero, son of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder (d. AD 30)
Milonia Caesonia, Roman empress (d. AD 41)
AD 7Drusus Caesar, son of Germanicus and Agrippina the elder (d. AD 33)
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, Roman General (d. AD 67)
AD 8Titus Flavius Sabinus, Roman consul and brother of emperor Vespasian (d. AD 69)
AD 9November 17 – Vespasian, Roman emperor (d. AD 79)
AD 1Arshak II of Iberia, king of Iberia of the Nimrodid Dynasty
Sapadbizes, king of the Kushan Empire
Amanishakheto, Queen of Kush
AD 2Lucius Caesar, son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder, (in Gaul) (b. 17 BC)
AD 4Gaius Caesar (b. 20 BCE), son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder, dies from wounds suffered during a campaign in Artagira, Armenia.
Bak Hyeokgeose of Silla, first ruler of Korea (b. 69 BCE).
Gaius Asinius Pollio, Roman orator, poet and historian (b. 65 BCE).
Terentia (b. 98 BCE), first wife of Marcus Tullius Cicero.
AD 6February 3 – Ping, emperor of Han China (b. 9 BC)
Cleopatra Selene (II), Egyptian ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya (b. 40 BC)
Orodes III, briefly emperor of Parthia
AD 7Athenodoros Cananites, Stoic philosopher (b. 74 BC)
AD 8Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, Roman general (b. 64 BC)
AD 9Publius Quinctilius Varus, Roman general, at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, said to have committed suicide (b. 46 BC)
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