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Wireless Communications of the German Army WW2

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During World War II, the German Army relied on an diverse array of communications to maintain contact with its mobile forces and in particular with its armoured forces. Most of this equipment received the generic prefix FuG for Funkgerät, meaning "radio equipment". Occasionally the shorted Fu designation were used and there were exceptions to both these systems. Number ranges were not unique between the services so sometimes different equipment had the same FuG prefix. This article is a list and a description of the radio equipment.

Contents

Armoured force communications

FuG 2: A high-band HF/low-band VHF receiver. It operated in the 22,000 to 33,3000  kHz (22-33.3 MHz) range. The Fu 2 was never used on its own but as an additional receiver in command tanks and relay devices. It was usually installed in Section leader and company commanders vehicles, to allow then to listen on one frequency while transmitting and receiving on another. As it operated on the same band as the FuG 5 it allowed them, for example,to listen to the regimental command net while talking to the subbornate units at the same time.

FuG 4: A medium wave receiver used in command tanks. It operated in the 1,130 to 3,000  kHz frequency range. It was used with the same antenna as the Fug 8. It was usually used for communication with a Fug 8 in the same installation. (Fug 8 + Fug 4)

FuG 5: A high-band HF/low-band VHF transceiver. It operated in the 22,000 to 33,3000  kHz (22-33.3 MHz) frequency range with a transmit power of 10 Watts. It was usually used with a 2-meter antenna. Was present in almost all German tanks and some other vehicles. Was the standard kit for tank-to-tank communication within platoons and companies. Range was approx 2–3 km when using AM voice and 3–4 km when using CW.

FuG 6: A high-band HF/low-band VHF transceiver. It operated in the 22,000 to 33,3000  kHz (22-33.3 MHz) frequency range with a transmit power of 20 Watts. It was usually used with a 2-meter antenna. It was used by armoured observation posts. These were usually early model tanks with some of their armament removed and replaced by equipment for artillery observers. It was used by the observers to communicate with the armoured unit leaders via their Fug 5 radios. Main advantage over the FuG 5 was greater range. Range was approx 4–6 km when using AM voice and 6–8 km when using CW. Comparable with the American SCR-508 tank radio, which covered a similar frequency range (20-27.9 MHz) at 25 watts. The major difference between German Army tank sets and US Army tank sets was the American use of FM for the high-HF/low-VHF bands.

FuG 7: A VHF transceiver (receiver/transmitter) used in command tanks. It operated in the 42,000 to 48,3000  kHz (42-48.3 MHz) frequency range with a transmit power of 20 Watts. It was usually used with a 1.4 meter antenna. It was matched with the Luftwaffe transceiver Fug 17 in ground support operations. It was used for CAS operations, though these became rare after late 1944 with the result that many command tanks with this equipment fitted were converted to other roles. Range 60 km AM voice to 80 km CW.

FuG 8: A medium wave transceiver (receiver/transmitter) used in command tanks. It operated in the 1,130 to 3,000  kHz frequency range with a transmit power of 30 Watts. It was used with various antenna ranging from 1.8 to 9 meters antenna. It was used for communication back to the regimental command post. Range 25 km AM voice to 140 km CW using the 9 m antenna, the station had to be stopped to use this antenna.

FuG 10: A medium wave transceiver (receiver/transmitter) used in command tanks. It operated in the 1,130 to 3,000  kHz frequency range with a transmit power of 30 Watts. It was used with a frame antenna on various reconnance units. Range 10 km AM voice to 40 km CW.

FuG 11: A medium wave transceiver (receiver/transmitter) used in command tanks. It operated in the 1,130 to 3,000  kHz frequency range with a transmit power of 100 Watts. Used at the regimental command post. Range 70 km AM voice to 200 km CW.

FuG 12: A medium wave transceiver (receiver/transmitter) used in command tanks. It operated in the 1,130 to 3,000  kHz frequency range with a transmit power of 80 Watts. It was used with a 2-meter antenna. reconnaissance units later in the war.

FuG 13: A Fug 6 with two receivers rather than 1.

FuG 15: A HF receiver. It operated in the 23,000 to 24,950,3000  kHz (23-24.95 MHz) frequency range. It was matched with transceiver Fug 16 for use with Sturmartillerie (self-propelled artillery).

FuG 16: A HF transceiver (receiver/transmitter) used in the command vehicles of Sturmartillerie units. It operated in the 23,000 to 24,950  kHz (23-24.95 MHz) frequency range with a transmit power of 10 Watts. It was usually used with a 2.0 meter antenna. Range 2 km AM voice to 4 km CW.

FuSpr.a: A mid-band HF transceiver. It operated in the 24.1 to 25  kHz frequency range with a transmit power of 5 Watts. It was used with antenna of either 1.4 to 2.0 meters antenna. It was used for by reconnaissance elements for intercommunication . Range 5 km AM voice.

FuSpr.f: A mid-band HF transceiver. It operated in the 19,990 to 21,470  kHz (19.99-21.47 MHz) frequency range with a transmit power of 5 Watts. It was used with antenna of either 1.4 to 2.0 meters antenna. It was used for by reconnaissance elements of the SPG force to communicate with artillery units. Range 5 km AM voice.

Infantry Equipment

The German army issued infantry radios in two main series. The "Backpack" or Torn series and the field or Feld series. The backpack radios were not the sort of radios we would expect with that term today. It meant that they could be moved around carried on the back not operated from a carrying position. Later units could be used while the operator was walking but with long wavelengths and short antenna range was poor. The feld units corresponded to modern backpacks which could be used on the move, however they were low powered and in real conditions range was not more than 1.5 km unless an extension antenna was attached, making them into fixed units.

Torn.Fu Series

Torn.Fu.a A HF transceiver. It operated in the 3-6.67 MHz frequency range. 2 Watt output AM voice and CW

Torn.Fu.b: A HF transceiver. It operated in the 3-5 MHz frequency range. 0.7 Watt output AM voice and CW. Formed the base design of other units. Used by the infantry at the regimental and battalion level. Not intended to be used on the move.

Torn.Fu.c: A HF transceiver. It operated in the 1.5-2.6 MHz frequency range. Otherwise identical to Torn.Fu.b. Used by artillery observers.

Torn.Fu.d2: A VHF transceiver. It operated in the 33.8-38 MHz frequency range. 1.5 Watt output AM voice and CW. Range approx 10 km with Cw and 3 with voice.Used by the infantry. A very common infantry set. Could be used on the move with one man carrying the transmitter/receiver and the other the battery/power supply and handset. A cable linked the two men together.

Torn.Fu.f: A HF transceiver. It operated in the 4.5-6.67 MHz frequency range. 0.7 Watt output AM voice and CW. Panzergrenadier units. Identical to Torn.Fu.b with exception of frequency range.

Torn.Fu.g: A HF transceiver. It operated in the 2.5-3.5 MHz frequency range. .5 Watt output AM voice and CW. Used at the battalion to company level. Some command and reconnaissance units had this infantry transceiver to allow then to talk to Panzergrenadier units.

Torn.Fu.h: A HF transceiver. It operated in the 23-28 MHz frequency range. 0.6 Watt output AM voice. SPG units.

Torn.Fu.i A HF transceiver. It operated in the 4.5-6.67 MHz frequency range. Replacement for Torn.Fu.f

Torn.Fu.k A HF transceiver. It operated in the 2.5-3.5 MHz frequency range. 1 Watt output AM voice and CW.Replacement for Torn.Fu.g

Feld.Fu Series

Feldfu.a1 120-156 MHZ Infantry, A VHF transceiver. .15 Watt output AM voice and CW. Range 1.5 km.

Feldfu b 90-110MHZ Infantry Used in two versions. .15 Watt output AM voice and CW. The b version was used by the Infantry until they changed to the 'c' model radio in another band. Thereafter version b1 was used by the Pioneers. Later a simplified version (b2), of lower power (.12w), was used by the Panzergrenadiers.

Feldfu b1 Pioniere 90-110Mhz Range 1.5 km.

Feldfu b2 Panzergrenadier only 2 tubes,no AF tube Rv2,4P700

Feldfu c 130 - 160 MHZ Infantry, .15 Watt output AM voice and CW. Infantry. Range 1.5 km.

Feldfu f 28. 0 - 33.0 MHz Panzergrenadier

Feldfu h 23.1 - 28.0 MHz Assault Guns

Other

KL.Fuspr.d: A VHF transceiver. It operated in the 32-38 MHz frequency range. Single unit "walkie talkie" system.Used by Artillery forward observers.

UHF Communication Link Equipment

From 1936 the German forces started deploying a range of communication links using UHF frequencies to form a point-to-point mesh communication network. During the war this was extended to cover the majority of the occupied areas or Europe and North Africa. Both the Army and the Air force made use of the same equipment. The units of the T series were "backpack" style mobile equipment. The K series were truck mobile units using a range of masts up to approximately 11 meters tall. The G series were still mobile but were intended to form more of a backbone for communications and were intended to remain in place for longer periods than the K. They again used a series of masts up to 50 meters high. Depending on the set a range of communication facilities were available consisting of voice and/or teletype and Hellscriber. Range was line-or-sight so the ranges reported here were assuming the antenna could "see" one another.

DMG 2 T : Pack unit, Operating on the 475 - 525 MHz band, single channel voice or 800 character per second Teletype. Range up to 50 km. Tripod mast or 11 meter mast. Transmit power 0.15 watt. Power battery.

DMG 3 K : Truck mounted. Operating on the 475 - 525 MHz band, two channels. Channel 1, 1 voice channel or 1 800 CPS teletype. Channel 2 6000 CPS teletype. Range up to 50 Km. Mast or tower. Power 220V AC 50 Hz.

Michael 2 B - DMG 4a K: Truck mounted. Operating on the 500 - 560 MHz band, two channels. Channel 1, Voice or 2400 CPS teletype. Channel 2 8000 CPS teletype. Range up to 100 km. Tower up to 50 meters. Transmit power 0.4 Watts. Power 220V AC 50 Hz 250 VA.

Michael 2 R - DMG 5 K: Truck mounted. Operating on the 502 - 555 MHz band, two channels. Channel 1 Voice or 5500 CPS teletype or 3 channels teletype. Channel 2 8000 CPS teletype. Transmitter power 1 watt. Range up to 50 Km. Mast or tower. Power 22V AC 50 Hz 300 VA.

Rudolf - DMG 3 G: 'Heavy' link. Operating on the 600 - 650 MHz band, two channels. Channel 1 Control channel voice, Channel 2 9 voice channels or p x 3 Teletype. Range up to 100 km. Tower up to 50 meters. Transmit power 3.5 watts. Power 220V AC 50 Hz 680 VA.

Stuttgaret - FuG D 3: Development item possible none deployed. Operating on the 1250 - 1390 MHz band, two channels.Range up to 100 km. Tower up to 50 meters.

DM 43: Development item possible none deployed. Operating on the 2000 - 2100 MHz band. No other details available

References

Wireless Communications of the German Army WW2 Wikipedia


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