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War Merit Cross (Italy)

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Established  19 January 1918
Next (lower)  Army Merit Cross
Eligibility  Members of the Italian armed forces
Awarded for  One year of service in combat operations Being wounded in combat
Next (higher)  War Cross for Military Valor

The Italian War Merit Cross (Italian: Croce al Merito di Guerra) was instituted by King Victor Emanuel III on 19 January 1918.

Contents

From its institution until 30 May 1927, 1,034,924 Crosses were issued.

Eligibility

The Italian War Merit Cross was awarded to members of the armed forces with a minimum of one year's service in contact with an enemy who received the Medal of the Wounded, or to those who, when mentioned for war merit, received a promotion. Also, if an act of valour was deemed insufficient for the Medal of Military Valour, the War Merit Cross could be awarded instead; from 1922 onwards a bronze sword on the ribbon showed this class of award.

Design

The War Merit Cross was in bronze, 38mm wide (1-1/2 inches), with a blue ribbon. A second award was indicated by a bronze star on the ribbon. The reverse side bears a 5-pointed star on a background of rays. The obverse has the royal cypher ("VE III" under a crown) in the upper arm, "MERITO DI GVERRA" (War Merit) on the horizontal arms and a Roman sword point upwards, on oak leaves, in the lower arm. During World War II, the War Merit Cross underwent a number of significant changes.

In 1941, by decree, the War Merit Cross was replaced by the Medal of Military Valour.

Notable recipients

  • Guido Natoli, Captain, Italian Army
  • Gino Polli, Lieutenant, Italian Army
  • Gino De Giorgi (twice), Admiral, Italian Navy
  • Robert L. Blackwell, Private, US Army, MoH
  • Tasker H. Bliss, General, US Army
  • Evans Carlson, Brigadier General, US Marines, leader of Carlson's Raiders
  • William J. Donovan, Major General, US Army, MoH
  • Edouard Izac, Lieutenant, US Navy, MoH
  • Clayton P. Kerr, United States Army Major General and member of Allied Mission to Italian Army in World War II
  • Frank Luke, Jr., Second Lieutenant, US Army Air Service, MoH
  • Douglas MacArthur, General, US Army, MoH
  • Alvin York, Sergeant, US Army, MoH
  • Richmond H. Hilton, Sergeant, US Army, MoH
  • Carioti Quinto, Private, Italian Army
  • Giuseppe Cirrincione, Maresciallo Dell'aeronautica
  • William Alexander Cunningham, Captain 321st Battalion US Army, Awarded January 19, 1918, n205
  • References

    War Merit Cross (Italy) Wikipedia


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