Trisha Shetty (Editor)

Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

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In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as:

Contents

Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenatious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places. Many of them are without a distinct head, and most of them without feet. They are principally distinguished by their tentacles (or feelers). By the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, nose, head, eyes and legs; and are therefore totally distinct from Insects.

Linnaean Characteristics

  • Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood.
  • Spiracles: obscure
  • Jaw: various
  • Penis: frequently hermaphrodites
  • Organs of Sense: tentacles (generally), eyes, no brain, no ears, no nostrils
  • Covering: calcareous or none, except spines
  • Supports: no feet, no fins. Crawls in Moise Places & are Mute
  • The class Vermes, as Linnaeus conceived it, was a rather diverse and mismatched grouping of animals; basically it served as a wastebasket taxon for any invertebrate species that was not an arthropod. With the advent of the scientific understanding of evolution, it became clear that many of the animals in these groups were not in fact closely related, and so the class Vermes was dropped for several (at least 30) phyla.

    Intestina

    Gordius (horsehair worms)
  • Gordius aquaticus 
  • Gordius argillaceus
  • Gordius medinensisDracunculus medinensis 
  • Furia
  • Furia infernalis – Despite the many accounts of this purported animal by respected authorities, including Daniel Solander and Linnaeus himself, it is now accepted that no such animal exists.
  • Lumbricus (earthworms)
  • Lumbricus terrestris – common earthworm
  • Lumbricus marinus – lugworm
  • Ascaris (giant intestinal roundworms)
  • Ascaris vermicularis – pinworm
  • Ascaris lumbricoides – giant roundworm
  • Fasciola (liver flukes)
  • Fasciola hepatica – sheep liver fluke
  • Fasciola intestinalis
  • Hirudo (leeches)
  • Hirudo sanguisugaHaemopis sanguisuga, horse leech
  • Hirudo medicinalisHirudo medicinalis, European medicinal leech
  • Hirudo octoculata - Erpobdella octoculata
  • Hirudo stagnalis - Helobdella stagnalis
  • Hirudo complanata - Glossiphonia complanata
  • Hirudo indica
  • Hirudo geometra- Piscicola geometra
  • Hirudo muricata - Pontobdella muricata
  • Myxine (hagfishes)
  • Myxine glutinosa – Atlantic hagfish
  • Teredo (shipworms)
  • Teredo lapidaria
  • Teredo navalis – naval shipworm
  • Mollusca

    Limax (terrestrial slugs)
  • Limax aterArion ater, the Black Slug
  • Limax rufusArion rufus, the Red Slug
  • Limax maximus – the Leopard Slug
  • Limax agrestis – now Deroceras agreste
  • Limax flavus – now Limacus flavus, the Yellow Slug
  • Doris (dorid nudibranchs)
  • Doris verrucosa – warty dorid
  • Tethys (tethydid sea slugs)
  • Tethys limacina
  • Tethys leporinaTethys fimbria
  • Nereis (polychaete worms)
  • Nereis lacustrisStylaria lacustris
  • Nereis caerulea
  • Nereis gigantea
  • Nereis pelagica
  • Nereis noctiluca
  • Aphrodita (Sea mice)
  • Aphrodita squamata
  • Aphrodita aculeata
  • Lernaea (anchor worms)
  • Lernaea cyprinacea 
  • Lernaea asellinaLernentoma asellina 
  • Lernaea salmoneaSalmincola salmoneus 
  • Priapus (priapulid worms & anemones)
  • Priapus equinus – Beadlet anemone
  • Priapus humanusPriapulus caudatus
  • Scyllaea (scyllaeid sea slugs)
  • Scyllaea pelagica – Sargassum nudibranch
  • Holothuria (salps & Man o' Wars)
  • Holothuria physalis – Portuguese Man o' War
  • Holothuria thalia, Holothuria caudata, & Holothuria denudataCyclosalpa pinnata
  • Triton (triton snails)
  • Triton littoreus
  • Sepia (octopuses, squid, & cuttlefish)
  • Sepia octopodiaEledone cirrhosa, the Horned Octopus 
  • Sepia officinalisSepia officinalis, the Common Cuttlefish
  • Sepia media
  • Sepia loligo - Loligo vulgaris, the Common Squid 
  • Sepia sepiola - Sepiola rondeleti, the Dwarf Bobtail 
  • Medusa (jellyfish)
  • Medusa porpita - Porpita porpita
  • Medusa cruciata
  • Medusa aequorea
  • Medusa auritaAurelia aurita, the Moon Jellyfish
  • Medusa capillataCyanea capillata, the Lion's Mane Jellyfish
  • Medusa pilearis
  • Medusa marsupialis - Carybdea marsupialis
  • Medusa pelagica
  • Medusa brachiata
  • Medusa beroe
  • Medusa velella - Velella velella
  • Asterias (starfish) 
  • Asterias luna - Anseropoda rosacea
  • Asterias rubensAsterias rubens, the Common Starfish
  • Asterias glacialis - Marthasterias glacialis
  • Asterias reticulata - Oreaster reticulatus, the Red Cushion Sea Star
  • Asterias nodosaProtoreaster nodosus, the Horned Sea Star
  • Asterias aranciaca - Astropecten aranciacus
  • Asterias equestris - Hippasteria phrygiana
  • Asterias laevigataLinckia laevigata, the Blue Star
  • Asterias planciAcanthaster planci, the Crown-of-thorns Starfish
  • Asterias ophiura - Ophiura ophiura, the Brittle-Star
  • Asterias pectinata - Comatula pectinata
  • Asterias multiradiata - Capillaster multiradiata
  • Asterias Caput medusae - Gorgonocephalus caputmedusae
  • Echinus (sea urchins & sand dollars)
  • Echinus esculentusEchinus esculentus, the Edible Sea Urchin
  • Echinus globulus - Mespilia globulus
  • Echinus sphaeroides
  • Echinus gratillaTripneustes gratilla, the Collector Urchin
  • Echinus lixulaArbacia lixula, the Black Sea Urchin
  • Echinus saxatilis
  • Echinus diademaEchinothrix diadema, the Diadema Urchin
  • Echinus cidarisCidaris cidaris
  • Echinus mamillatusHeterocentrotus mammillatus, the Slate Pencil Urchin
  • Echinus lucunter - Echinometra lucunter
  • Echinus atratus - Colobocentrotus atratus
  • Echinus spatagus - Metalia spatagus
  • Echinus lacunosus - Schizaster lacunosus
  • Echinus rosaceusClypeaster rosaceus
  • Echinus reticulatus - Clypeaster reticulatus
  • Echinus placenta - Arachnoides placenta
  • Echinus orbiculus - Hemiheliopsis fonti
  • Testacea

    Chiton (chitons)
  • Chiton hispidus
  • Chiton tuberculatus – West Indian green chiton
  • Chiton aculeatus
  • Chiton punctatus
  • Lepas (barnacles)
  • Lepas balanusBalanus balanus 
  • Lepas tintinnabulumMegabalanus tintinnabulum 
  • Lepas testudinariaChelonibia testudinaria 
  • Lepas mitellaCapitulum mitella 
  • Lepas anatifera 
  • Pholas (piddocks & angelwings)
  • Pholas dactylusPholas dactylus
  • Pholas costatus
  • Pholas striatus
  • Pholas candidusBarnea candida
  • Pholas pusillus
  • Myes (soft-shell clams)
  • Myes crispata
  • Myes truncata – truncate softshell
  • Myes arenaria – common softshell
  • Myes lutraria
  • Myes pictorum
  • Myes margaritifera
  • Myes perna
  • Myes vulsella
  • Solen (razor clams)
  • Solen vagina
  • Solen siliqua – Pod razor
  • Solen ensis
  • Solen legumen
  • Solen cultellus
  • Solen radiatus
  • Solen strigilatus
  • Solen anatinus
  • Solen bullatus
  • Solen inaequivalvis
  • Tellina (tellins)
  • Tellina gargadia
  • Tellina linguafelis
  • Tellina virgata
  • Tellina gari
  • Tellina fragilisGastrana fragilis
  • Tellina albida
  • Tellina foliacea
  • Tellina planata
  • Tellina laevigata – smooth tellin
  • Tellina radiata – sunrise tellin
  • Tellina rostrata
  • Tellina trifasciata
  • Tellina incarnata
  • Tellina donacina – Donax tellin
  • Tellina balaustina
  • Tellina remies
  • Tellina scobinata
  • Tellina lactea
  • Tellina carnaria
  • Tellina bimaculata
  • Tellina balthica – Baltic tellin
  • Tellina pisiformis
  • Tellina divaricata
  • Tellina digitaria
  • Tellina cornea
  • Cardium (cockles)
  • Cardium costatum
  • Cardium cardissa
  • Cardium hemicardium
  • Cardium medium
  • Cardium muricatumAcanthocardia aculeata
  • Cardium echinatumAcanthocardia echinata
  • Cardium ciliare
  • Cardium tuberculatumAcanthocardia tuberculata
  • Cardium isocardia
  • Cardium fragum
  • Cardium unedo
  • Cardium muricatum
  • Cardium magnum
  • Cardium flavum
  • Cardium laevigatum
  • Cardium serratum
  • Cardium triste
  • Cardium corallinum
  • Cardium solidum
  • Cardium edule – common cockle
  • Cardium rusticum
  • Cardium pectinatum
  • Cardium stultorum
  • Cardium virgineum
  • Cardium humanum
  • Donax (wedge shells)
  • Donax pubescens
  • Donax rugosa
  • Donax trunculus
  • Donax denticulata
  • Donax cuneata
  • Donax scripta
  • Donax muricata
  • Donax irus
  • Venus (Venus clams)
  • Venus dione
  • Venus marica
  • Venus dysera
  • Venus verrucosa – warty venus
  • Venus casina
  • Venus gallinaChamelea gallina
  • Venus petulca
  • Venus erycina
  • Venus mercenaria – hard clam
  • Venus chione
  • Venus maculata
  • Venus meretrix
  • Venus scortum
  • Venus laeta
  • Venus castrensis
  • Venus phryne
  • Venus meroë
  • Venus deflorata
  • Venus fimbriata
  • Venus reticulata
  • Venus squamosa
  • Venus tigerina
  • Venus prostrata
  • Venus pensylvanica
  • Venus incrustata
  • Venus punctata
  • Venus exoleta
  • Venus orbicularis
  • Venus ziczac
  • Venus pectinata
  • Venus scripta
  • Venus edentula
  • Venus lupinus
  • Venus literata
  • Venus rotundata
  • Venus decussata
  • Spondylus (thorny oysters)
  • Spondylus gaederopus
  • Spondylus regius
  • Chama (jewel box shells)
  • Chama lazarus
  • Chama gigas
  • Chama hippopus
  • Chama antiquata
  • Chama semiorbiculata
  • Chama calyculata
  • Chama cordata
  • Chama oblonga
  • Chama gryphoides
  • Chama bicornis
  • Arca (ark clams)
  • Arca tortuosa
  • Arca noae
  • Arca barbataBarbatia barbata
  • Arca pella
  • Arca lacteaStriarca lactea
  • Arca antiquata
  • Arca senilis
  • Arca granosa
  • Arca decussata
  • Arca pallens
  • Arca undata
  • Arca pectunculus
  • Arca glycymeris
  • Arca nummaria
  • Arca nucleus
  • Ostrea (true oysters)
  • Ostrea maxima
  • Ostrea jacobaea
  • Ostrea ziczac
  • Ostrea striatula
  • Ostrea minuta
  • Ostrea pleuronectes
  • Ostrea obliterata
  • Ostrea radula
  • Ostrea plica
  • Ostrea pallium
  • Ostrea nodosa
  • Ostrea pes felis
  • Ostrea pellucens
  • Ostrea sanguinea
  • Ostrea varia
  • Ostrea pusio
  • Ostrea glabra
  • Ostrea opercularis
  • Ostrea gibba
  • Ostrea flavicans
  • Ostrea fasciata
  • Ostrea lima
  • Ostrea isognomum
  • Ostrea malleus
  • Ostrea foliumPycnodonta folium
  • Ostrea orbicularis
  • Ostrea edulis – edible oyster
  • Ostrea semiaurita
  • Ostrea ephippium
  • Anomia (saddle oysters)
  • Anomia craniolaris
  • Anomia pectinata
  • Anomia ephippium
  • Anomia cepa
  • Anomia electrica
  • Anomia squamula – prickly jingle
  • Anomia scobinata
  • Anomia aurita
  • Anomia retusaTerebratulina retusa
  • Anomia gryphus
  • Anomia pecten
  • Anomia striatula
  • Anomia reticularis
  • Anomia plicatella
  • Anomia crispa
  • Anomia lacunosa
  • Anomia fareta
  • Anomia caput serpentis
  • Anomia terebratula
  • Anomia angulata
  • Anomia hysterita
  • Anomia biloba
  • Anomia placenta
  • Mytilus – (Mussels including marine and freshwater mussels)
  • Mytilus crista galli
  • Mytilus hyotis
  • Mytilus frons
  • Mytilus margaritiferus – freshwater pearl mussel
  • Mytilus unguis
  • Mytilus lithophagus
  • Mytilus bilocularis
  • Mytilus exustus
  • Mytilus barbatus
  • Mytilus edulis – blue mussel
  • Mytilus ungulatus
  • Mytilus modiolus
  • Mytilus cygneus – swan mussel (a freshwater mussel)
  • Mytilus anatinus – duck mussel (a freshwater mussel)
  • Mytilus viridis
  • Mytilus ruber
  • Mytilus hirundo
  • Pinna (pen shells)
  • Pinna rudis – rough penshell
  • Pinna nobilis
  • Pinna muricata
  • Pinna rotundata
  • Pinna saccata
  • Pinna digitiformis
  • Pinna lobata
  • Pinna pennacea
  • Argonauta (paper nautiluses)
  • Argonauta argo – greater argonaut
  • Argonauta cymbium
  • Nautilus (Nautiluses)
  • Nautilus pompilius – chambered nautilus
  • Nautilus crista
  • Nautilus calcar
  • Nautilus crispus
  • Nautilus beccarii
  • Nautilus umbilicatus
  • Nautilus spirulaSpirula spirula
  • Nautilus Semi-Lituus
  • Nautilus obliqvus
  • Nautilus raphanistrum
  • Nautilus raphanus
  • Nautilus granum
  • Nautilus radicula
  • Nautilus fascia
  • Nautilus sipunculus
  • Nautilus legumen
  • Nautilus orthocera
  • Conus (Cone Snails)
  • Conus marmoreus – marbled cone
  • Conus imperialis – imperial cone
  • Conus litteratus – lettered cone
  • Conus virgo
  • Conus capitaneus
  • Conus miles
  • Conus princeps
  • Conus ammiralis
  • Conus senator
  • Conus nobilis
  • Conus genuanus
  • Conus glaucus
  • Conus monachusConus achatinus
  • Conus minimus
  • Conus rusticus
  • Conus mercator
  • Conus betulinus
  • Conus figulinus
  • Conus ebraeus – black-and-white cone
  • Conus stercus muscarumConus stercusmuscarum
  • Conus varius
  • Conus spinosus
  • Conus clavus
  • Conus nussatella – Nussatella cone
  • Conus granulatus – Glory-of-the-Atlantic cone
  • Conus aurisiacus
  • Conus magus
  • Conus striatus – striated cone
  • Conus textile – cloth of gold cone
  • Conus aulicus
  • Conus spectrum
  • Conus bullatus – bubble cone
  • Conus tulipa
  • Conus geographus – geography cone
  • Conus terebellumTerebellum terebellum
  • Cypraea (Cowries)
  • Cypraea mappa – map cowry
  • Cypraea arabica – Arabian cowry
  • Cypraea argus
  • Cypraea testudinaria – turtle cowry
  • Cypraea stercoraria
  • Cypraea carneola – Carnelian cowry
  • Cypraea zebra – measled cowry
  • Cypraea talpa – mole cowry
  • Cypraea amethystea
  • Cypraea lurida
  • Cypraea vanelli
  • Cypraea lota
  • Cypraea fragilis
  • Cypraea caput serpentis – serpent's-head cowry
  • Cypraea mauritiana – humpback cowry
  • Cypraea vitellus
  • Cypraea mus
  • Cypraea tigris – tiger cowry
  • Cypraea lynx
  • Cypraea isabellaLuria isabella
  • Cypraea onyx
  • Cypraea succincta
  • Cypraea ziczac
  • Cypraea hirundo
  • Cypraea asellus
  • Cypraea cribraria
  • Cypraea errones
  • Cypraea moneta – money cowry
  • Cypraea caurica
  • Cypraea annulus – gold ringer
  • Cypraea erosa – gnawed cowry
  • Cypraea helvola – honey cowry
  • Cypraea spurca
  • Cypraea stolida – stolid cowry
  • Cypraea ocellata
  • Cypraea flaveola
  • Cypraea poraria
  • Cypraea pediculus
  • Cypraea nucleus
  • Cypraea staphylaea – stippled cowry
  • Cypraea cicercula
  • Cypraea globulus
  • Bulla (bubble shells)
  • Bulla ovum
  • Bulla volva
  • Bulla spelta
  • Bulla verrucosa
  • Bulla gibbosa
  • Bulla naucum
  • Bulla hydatis
  • Bulla ampulla
  • Bulla lignaria
  • Bulla physis
  • Bulla amplustre
  • Bulla pallida
  • Bulla canaliculata
  • Bulla fontinalis
  • Bulla hypnorum
  • Bulla cypraea
  • Bulla tornatilis
  • Bulla achatin
  • Bulla Auris Midae
  • Bulla Auris Judae
  • Bulla solidula
  • Bulla livida
  • Bulla coffea
  • Voluta (volutes)
  • Voluta porphyria
  • Voluta oliva
  • Voluta ispidula
  • Voluta persicula
  • Voluta monilis
  • Voluta miliaria
  • Voluta faba
  • Voluta glabella
  • Voluta mercatoria
  • Voluta rustica
  • Voluta pauperculaMitra paupercula
  • Voluta mendicaria
  • Voluta tringa
  • Voluta cornicula
  • Voluta caffra
  • Voluta sanguisuga
  • Voluta vulpecula
  • Voluta plicaria
  • Voluta pertusa
  • Voluta mitra episcopalis
  • Voluta mitra papalis
  • Voluta musica – music volute
  • Voluta vespertilio
  • Voluta ebraea – Hebrew volute
  • oluta aethiopicaMelo aethiopica
  • Voluta cymbium
  • Voluta olla
  • Buccinum (true whelks)
  • Buccinum oleariumTonna galea
  • Buccinum galea
  • Buccinum perdix
  • Buccinum pomumMalea pomum
  • Buccinum dolium
  • Buccinum echinophorum
  • Buccinum tuberosum
  • Buccinum plicatum
  • Buccinum cornutum
  • Buccinum rufum
  • Buccinum flammeum
  • Buccinum testiculus
  • Buccinum decussatum
  • Buccinum areola
  • Buccinum erinaceus
  • Buccinum glaucum
  • Buccinum vibex
  • Buccinum papillosum
  • Buccinum glans
  • Buccinum arculariaNassarius arcularia
  • Buccinum pullusNassa pulla
  • Buccinum gibbosulum
  • Buccinum mutabile
  • Buccinum neriteum
  • Buccinum harpaHarpa harpa
  • Buccinum costatumHarpa costata
  • Buccinum persicumPurpura persica
  • Buccinum patulum
  • Buccinum lapillus – dog whelk
  • Buccinum smaragdulusLeucozonia smaragdula
  • Buccinum spiratum
  • Buccinum glabratum
  • Buccinum virgineum
  • Buccinum praemorsum
  • Buccinum undosumCantharus undosus
  • Buccinum undatum – common whelk
  • Buccinum reticulatum
  • Buccinum scabriculum
  • Buccinum nitidulum
  • Buccinum laevigatum
  • Buccinum maculatumOxymeris maculata
  • Buccinum crenulatum
  • Buccinum hecticumImpages hectica
  • Buccinum strigilatumHastula strigilata
  • Buccinum duplicatumDuplicaria duplicata
  • Buccinum dimidiatumAcus dimidiata
  • Buccinum murinum
  • Strombus (true conchs)
  • Strombus pes pelecani – pelican's foot
  • Strombus chiragraLambis chiragra
  • Strombus scorpiusLambis scorpius
  • Strombus lambisLambis lambis
  • Strombus millepedaLambis millepeda
  • Strombus lentiginosus – silver conch
  • Strombus gallusAliger gallus
  • Strombus auris dianaeStrombus aurisdianae
  • Strombus pugilis – West Indian fighting conch
  • Strombus marginatus
  • Strombus luhuanus – strawberry conch
  • Strombus gibberulus – humpbacked conch
  • Strombus lucifer
  • Strombus gigasEustrombus gigas
  • Strombus latissimus
  • Strombus epidromis
  • Strombus canarium
  • Strombus vittatus
  • Strombus urceus
  • Strombus dentatus
  • Strombus ater
  • Strombus lividus
  • Murex (Murex Snails)
  • Murex haustellumHaustellum haustellum
  • Murex tribulus
  • Murex cornutusBolinus cornutus
  • Murex brandaris – purple dye murex
  • Murex trunculus – banded dye murex
  • Murex ramosus – ramose murex
  • Murex scorpio – scorpion murex
  • Murex saxatilis
  • Murex erinaceus – European sting winkle
  • Murex ranaBufonaria rana
  • Murex gyrinusGyrineum gyrinum
  • Murex lampasCharonia lampas
  • Murex oleariú
  • Murex femoraleCymatium femorale
  • Murex lotoriúLotoria lotoria
  • Murex pileare
  • Murex rubeculaSepta rubecula
  • Murex scrobilatorBursa scrobilator
  • Murex reticularisDistorsio reticularis
  • Murex pyrumRanularia pyrum
  • Murex anusDistorsio anus
  • Murex ricinus
  • Murex capitellum
  • Murex turbinellus
  • Murex nodus
  • Murex hystrix
  • Murex mancinellaPurpura mancinella
  • Murex ceramicus
  • Murex hippocastanumThais virgata
  • Murex melongena
  • Murex scabriculus
  • Murex senticosus
  • Murex ficusFicus ficus
  • Murex rapa
  • Murex granum
  • Murex fusus
  • Murex babylonius
  • Murex colus – distaff spindle
  • Murex morio
  • Murex cochlidium
  • Murex canaliculatus
  • Murex aruanus – Australian trumpet
  • Murex perversus
  • Murex antiqvus
  • Murex despectus
  • Murex tritonis
  • Murex tulipaFasciolaria tulipa
  • Murex pusio
  • Murex corneus
  • Murex ligniariusFasciolaria lignaria
  • Murex trapeziumPleuroploca trapezium
  • Murex syracusanusFusinus syracusanus
  • Murex craticulatusTurrilatirus craticulatus
  • Murex scriptus
  • Murex alucoPseudovertagus aluco
  • Murex fuscatus
  • Murex radula
  • Murex asperRhinoclavis aspera
  • Murex granulatus
  • Trochus (top snails)
  • Trochus maculatus – maculated top shell
  • Trochus perspectivus
  • Trochus hybridus
  • Trochus cruciatus
  • Trochus pharaonius – strawberry top shell
  • Trochus magus
  • Trochus modulus
  • Trochus muricatus
  • Trochus scaber
  • Trochus variusGibbula varia
  • Trochus cinerarius
  • Trochus divaricatus
  • Trochus umbilicarisGibbula umbilicaris
  • Trochus vestiarius
  • Trochus labio
  • Trochus tuber
  • Trochus striatus
  • Trochus conulusCalliostoma conulus
  • Trochus zizyphinusCalliostoma zizyphinum
  • Trochus telescopium
  • Trochus dolabratus
  • Trochus perversus
  • Trochus punctatus
  • Trochus striatellusJujubinus striatus
  • Turbo (turban snails)
  • Turbo obtusatus – flat periwinkle
  • Turbo neritoides
  • Turbo littoreus
  • Turbo muricatusCenchritis muricatus
  • Turbo cimex
  • Turbo pullus
  • Turbo personatus
  • Turbo petholatus
  • Turbo cochlus
  • Turbo chrysostomus
  • Turbo tectum persicum
  • Turbo pagodus
  • Turbo calcar
  • Turbo marmoratus – great green turban
  • Turbo sarmaticus
  • Turbo olearius
  • Turbo pica – West Indian top shell
  • Turbo sanguineusHomalopoma sanguineum
  • Turbo argyrostomus
  • Turbo margaritaceus
  • Turbo delphinus
  • Turbo distortus
  • Turbo scalaris
  • Turbo clathrus
  • Turbo crenatus
  • Turbo lacteus
  • Turbo striatulus
  • Turbo uva
  • Turbo corneus
  • Turbo reflexus
  • Turbo lincina
  • Turbo imbricatus
  • Turbo replicatus
  • Turbo acutangulus
  • Turbo duplicatusTurritella duplicata
  • Turbo exoletusTurritella exoleta
  • Turbo terebraTurritella terebra
  • Turbo variegatusTurritella variegata
  • Turbo ungulinus
  • Turbo annulatusPyrgula annulata
  • Turbo bidensPapillifera bidens
  • Turbo perversus
  • Turbo muscorumPupilla muscorum
  • Turbo auriscalpium
  • Turbo politus
  • Helix (land snails)
  • Helix scarabaeus
  • Helix lapicida
  • Helix oculus capri
  • Helix albella
  • Helix striatula
  • Helix algiraZonites algirus
  • Helix leucas
  • Helix planorbis
  • Helix complanata
  • Helix ringens
  • Helix carocolla
  • Helix cornu militare
  • Helix vortex
  • Helix scabraLittoraria scabra
  • Helix gothica
  • Helix gualtierana
  • Helix cornea
  • Helix spirorbis
  • Helix contorta
  • Helix cornu arietis
  • Helix hispida
  • Helix ampullacea
  • Helix pomatia – Roman snail
  • Helix glauca
  • Helix citrina
  • Helix arbustorum
  • Helix ungulina
  • Helix itala
  • Helix hispana
  • Helix lutariaHelix lutescens
  • Helix perversa
  • Helix janthina – common purple snail
  • Helix viviparaViviparus contectus a freshwater snail
  • Helix nemoralis – grove snail
  • Helix lucorum
  • Helix grisea
  • Helix haemastoma
  • Helix decollata – decollate snail
  • Helix pupa
  • Helix barbara
  • Helix amarula
  • Helix stagnalis – great pond snail
  • Helix fragilis
  • Helix putris
  • Helix limosa
  • Helix tentaculata – common bithynia
  • Helix auricularia – big-ear radix
  • Helix balthica
  • Helix neritoidea
  • Helix perspicua
  • Helix haliotoidea
  • Helix ambigua
  • Neritha (nerites)
  • Nerita canrena
  • Nerita glaucina
  • Nerita vitellus
  • Nerita albumé
  • Nerita mammilla
  • Nerita nodosaThais nodosa
  • Nerita corona
  • Nerita radula
  • Nerita cornea
  • Nerita fluviatilis
  • Nerita littoralis
  • Nerita lacustris
  • Nerita bidens
  • Nerita viridis
  • Nerita virginea
  • Nerita polita
  • Nerita peloronta – bleeding tooth
  • Nerita albicilla – blotched nerite
  • Nerita histrio
  • Nerita plicata
  • Nerita grossa
  • Nerita chamaeleon
  • Nerita undata
  • Nerita exuvia – snakeskin nerite
  • Haliotis (abalones)
  • Haliotis midae
  • Haliotis tuberculata – green ormer
  • Haliotis striata
  • Haliotis varia
  • Haliotis marmorata – virgin paua
  • Haliotis asinina – ass's ear abalone
  • Haliotis parva
  • Patella (true limpets & brachiopods)
  • Patella equestris
  • Patella neritoidea
  • Patella chinensis
  • Patella porcellana
  • Patella fornicata
  • Patella laciniosaSiphonaria laciniosa
  • Patella saccharina
  • Patella barbaraScutellastra barbara
  • Patella granularisScutellastra granularis
  • Patella granatinaCymbula granatina
  • Patella vulgata – common limpet
  • Patella caerulea
  • Patella tuberculata
  • Patella ungarica
  • Patella mammillaris
  • Patella pectinata – striped false limpet
  • Patella lutea
  • Patella unguisLingula anatina
  • Patella lacustris
  • Patella pellucida – blue-rayed limpet
  • Patella testudinariaCellana testudinaria
  • Patella compressaCymbula compressa
  • Patella rustica
  • Patella fusca
  • Patella notataClypidina notata
  • Patella cruciata
  • Patella reticulata
  • Patella fissura – common slit limpet
  • Patella pustula
  • Patella graeca – Greek keyhole limpet
  • Patella nimbosa
  • Patella nubecula
  • Dentalium (tusk shells)
  • Dentalium elephantinum
  • Dentalium dentalis
  • Dentalium entalisAntalis entalis
  • Dentalium minutum
  • Serpula (serpulid worms)
  • Serpula seminulum
  • Serpula planorbis
  • Serpula spirillum
  • Serpula spirorbis
  • Serpula triquetraPomatoceros triqueter
  • Serpula intricata
  • Serpula contortuplicata
  • Serpula glomerataPetaloconchus glomeratus
  • Serpula lumbricalisPetaloconchus adansoni
  • Serpula arenariaSerpulorbis arenarius
  • Serpula anguinaTenagodus anguinus
  • Serpula penis veneris
  • Serpula penicillus
  • Serpula ringens
  • Lithophyta

    Tubipora (organ pipe corals)
  • Tubipora musica – Organ pipe coral
  • Tubipora infundibuliformis
  • Tubipora verrucosa
  • Tubipora urceus
  • Tubipora serpens
  • Tubipora repens
  • Tubipora arenosa
  • Millepora (Fire corals)
  • Millepora cellulosa
  • Millepora lichenoides
  • Millepora damicornis
  • Millepora alcicornis
  • Millepora reticulata
  • Millepora lineata
  • Millepora compressa
  • Millepora muricata
  • Millepora eschara
  • Millepora crustacea
  • Madrepora (stone corals)
  • Madrepora acetabulumAcetabularia acetabulum
  • Madrepora verrucaria
  • Madrepora turbinata
  • Madrepora fungites
  • Madrepora pileus
  • Madrepora maeandrites
  • Madrepora labyrinthiformis
  • Madrepora areolata
  • Madrepora punctata
  • Madrepora agaricites
  • Madrepora truncata
  • Madrepora stellaris
  • Madrepora polygama
  • Madrepora favosa
  • Madrepora astroites
  • Madrepora organum
  • Madrepora flexuosa
  • Madrepora turbinata
  • Madrepora fascicularis
  • Madrepora ananas
  • Madrepora pertusa
  • Madrepora ramea
  • Madrepora rubra
  • Madrepora oculata
  • Madrepora virginea
  • Zoophyta

    Isis (soft corals)
  • Isis hippuris
  • Isis dichotoma
  • Isis ocracea
  • Isis anastatica
  • Isis encrinus
  • Gorgonia (sea fans)
  • Gorgonia spiralis
  • Gorgonia ventalina – Common Sea Fan
  • Gorgonia flabellum – Venus Sea Fan
  • Gorgonia antipathes
  • Gorgonia ceratophyta
  • Gorgonia pinnata
  • Gorgonia aenea
  • Gorgonia placomus
  • Gorgonia abies
  • Alcyonium (soft corals)
  • Alcyonium arboreu
  • Alcyonium digitatu
  • Alcyonium bursa
  • Tubularia (Tubularia)
  • Tubularia indivisa – Tall Tubularia
  • Tubularia ramosa
  • Eschara (Bryozoa)
  • Eschara foliacea
  • Eschara fistulosa
  • Eschara fragilis
  • Eschara divaricata
  • Eschara verticillata
  • Corallina (coralline algae)
  • Corallina opuntia
  • Corallina officinalis
  • Corallina squamata
  • Corallina corniculata
  • Corallina barbata
  • Corallina fragilissima
  • Corallina rubensJania rubens
  • Corallina cristata
  • Corallina spermophoros
  • Corallina penicillus
  • Sertularia (Bryozoa)
  • Sertularia rosacea
  • Sertularia pumila
  • Sertularia operculata
  • Sertularia tamarisca
  • Sertularia abietina
  • Sertularia cupressina
  • Sertularia argentea
  • Sertularia avicularia
  • Sertularia rugosa
  • Sertularia halecina
  • Sertularia thuja
  • Sertularia eburneaCrisia eburnea
  • Sertularia cornuta
  • Sertularia myriophyllum
  • Sertularia falcata
  • Sertularia pluma
  • Sertularia antennina
  • Sertularia verticillata
  • Sertularia volubilis
  • Sertularia cuscuta
  • Sertularia uvaWalkeria uva
  • Sertularia lendigera
  • Sertularia geniculata
  • Sertularia dichotoma
  • Sertularia spinosa
  • Sertularia pinnata
  • Sertularia polyzonias
  • Sertularia setacea
  • Sertularia stipulata
  • Sertularia pennaria
  • Sertularia lichenastrum
  • Sertularia cedrina
  • Sertularia purpurea
  • Sertularia flexuosa
  • Sertularia bursaria
  • Sertularia loricata
  • Sertularia fastigiata
  • Sertularia neritinaBugula neritina
  • Sertularia scruposa
  • Sertularia reptans
  • Sertularia ciliata
  • Sertularia chelata
  • Sertularia anguinaAetea anguina
  • Sertularia polypina
  • Hydra
  • Hydra polypus
  • Hydra campanulata
  • Hydra socialis
  • Hydra stentoria
  • Hydra pyraria
  • Hydra convallaria
  • Hydra crataegaria
  • Hydra opercularia
  • Hydra umbellaria
  • Hydra berberina
  • Hydra digitalis
  • Pennatula (sea pens)
  • Pennatula phosphorea
  • Pennatula filosa
  • Pennatula sagitta
  • Pennatula mirabilis
  • Taenia (tapeworms)
  • Taenia solium – pork tapeworm
  • Taenia vulgaris
  • Taenia lata
  • Taenia canina
  • Volvox
  • Volvox globator 
  • Volvox chaos - Chaos chaos
  • References

    Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae Wikipedia


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