|Locale Jakarta, Indonesia|
Number of stations 223
Began operation January 25, 2004
|Transit type bus rapid transit|
|Number of lines 12 (BRT) (1 under construction, 1 planned) 11 BRT express 25 city bus (integrated to BRT) 10 suburban bus 8 low cost apartment feeder|
TransJakarta is a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Jakarta, Indonesia. It was the first BRT system in Southern and Southeast Asia. TransJakarta system began operations on January 25, 2004. TransJakarta was designed to provide Jakarta citizens with a fast public transportation system to help reduce rush hour traffic. The buses run in dedicated lanes and ticket prices are subsidized by the regional government.
- History and problems
- Current Operator and fleet
- Future fleet
- Accidents and incidents
- Ticketing and fares
In 2011, the system achieved the annual peak performance with the buses carried 114.7 million passengers and then in the next following years the number is declining and in 2014, the buses carried 111.6 million passengers, while in 2015 served 102.95 million passengers. In 2016, a new record of 123.73 million passengers was achieved. The fare cost has remained Rp 3,500 (27 US cents) per passenger since initial operation.
TransJakarta has the world's longest BRT system (210.31 km in length), with 12 primary routes and 10 cross-corridor routes. Three more corridors were due to commence construction in 2014 or 2015 and will be partially elevated whereas the existing corridors are at ground level. In addition there are 18 'feeder' routes that continue past the end of the exclusive busways into the municipalities surrounding Jakarta and use special buses that allow for boarding at either ground level or the TransJakarta station platforms.TransJakarta has total 80 routes (corridor, cross route & feeder route) at the end of 2016. A significant increase from 41 routes in 2015. While TransJakarta deploys 1,056 buses in 2016 and also a significant increase from 605 buses in 2015.
The characteristics of TransJakarta as listed in an Asian Development Bank study were:
History and problems
The first TransJakarta line opened to the public on January 15, 2004. Following two weeks in which it was free to use, commercial operations started on February 1, 2004.
TransJakarta was built to provide a fast, comfortable, and affordable mass transportation system. To accomplish those objectives, the buses were given lanes restricted to other traffic and separated by concrete blocks on the streets that became part of the busway routes.
Normal operating times are from 5:00am to 10:00pm. Some routes have extended hours until 11:00pm. Seven routes have limited overnight services providing 24-hour operation.
The buses run along the following routes:
On June 1, 2014, 24-hour operation began on three corridors — the Blok M-Kota route (Corridor 1), Pinang Ranti-Pluit route (Corridor 9) and Kalideres-Pasar Baru route (Corridor 3). Service is provided by 18 buses with 2 buses in reserve and service frequency is between 30 minutes and an hour. On May 6, 2015, 24-hour operation began on four corridors - the Harmoni-Pulogadung route (Corridor 2), Cililitan-Ancol Route (Corridor 5), Harmoni-Lebak Bulus route (corridor 8) and Tanjung Priok-Cililitan route (corridor 10). Service is provided by 28 buses with 2 buses in reserve and frequency is between 30 minutes and 60 minute.
In order to promote gender equity, TransJakarta is increasing the number of female driver recruits. The projected proportion is 30% of the total.
A number of design and operational problems have been identified. Despite having an 'exclusive' bus lane, unauthorised vehicles illegally using the lanes in an attempt to more quickly navigate through the traffic jams are a common problem. Depot maintenance shops and special gas stations (most buses use compressed natural gas (CNG)) often have long lines of buses, restricting the availability of buses for service. The CNG powered buses also have suffered from higher fuel consumption than expected (1 litre for 1.3 km vs. 2.1 km as specified) and high oil and moisture content requiring extra maintenance. Other problems identified were: a lack of feeder bus services, a lack of adequate transfer information and transfer facilities and a lack of articulated buses. A 2010 survey showed 75% of passengers transferred from medium or micro buses to the TransJarkara buses and it was estimated if 'direct service' operations were implemented (i.e., multiple stopping points at some stations with bypass lanes and some services continuing beyond the trunk corridors) patronage would increase by 50%. A feeder bus service called APTB was introduced in 2012.
In May 2013 it was reported the system was losing passengers due to unpredictable service frequency, worsening travel times and poor maintenance of the infrastructure and vehicles. The problem of excluding private vehicles from busway was ongoing. By November 2013, after a campaign to 'sterilize' the lanes improved travel times, reports indicate patronage had increased by 20,000 per day up to between 330,000 and 355,000.
Current Operator and fleet
Hino RK1 JSNL-RHJ CNG
Hino RG J08C-TI, Mercedes-Benz OH1521 Intercooler OM366LA.
Zhongtong Bus LCK6180GC Doosan CNG Euro V, INKA Inobus Cummins ATC 320 CNG Series.
Zhongtong Bus LCK6180GC Doosan CNG Euro V, Ankai HFF6180G02D Weichai CNG Euro IV, Ankai Single Bus HFF6120D17D Weichai CNG Euro III, Yutong ZK6180HGC Weichai CNG Euro III, Hino RK8JSKA-NHJ R260, Scania K320IA CNG Euro VI, Scania K340IA CNG Euro VI, Mercedes Benz OH1526 NG, Mercedes Benz OH1626 A/T.
Hino RK8JSKA-NHU R260, INKA Inobus SGL 290 Doosan CNG Euro IV
Toyota Dyna 110FT, Hino FB130, Isuzu NQR 71, Isuzu FRR 90.
Scania K320IA CNG Euro VI, Scania K310IB 6x2.
Accidents and incidents
From January to July 2010 there were 237 accidents involving TransJakarta buses, resulting in 57 injuries and eight deaths. Accidents occurred due to pedestrians crossing the busway and cars making u-turns. In 2011, in an effort to stop non TransJakarta vehicles using the bus lanes, the Jakarta Police Chief suggested that TransJakarta buses should run against the direction of traffic flow. Usually non-TransJakarta vehicles used busway lanes during peak hours between 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. to 7 p.m.
On January 12, 2012, a policeman from Indonesian Police Headquarters, who was hired by Securicor, fired his gun near the ear of a TransJakarta officer, after threatening to kill him. The policeman was angry after the TransJakarta officer stopped the Securicor car from entering the busway lane which only allows TransJakarta buses, ambulances and firefighter to enter. The police spokesman said that the policeman will be charged by criminal law or disciplinary sanction.
On March 12, 2012, four TransJakarta buses were hijacked by alleged university students at the Medan Merdeka Selatan street. The buses were then driven to the front of the Universitas Kristen Indonesia (Christian University of Indonesia) campus. Three drivers were able to escape from their buses, but one driver was prevented from leaving and forced to drive the hijackers to their destination. Fire extinguishers, glass-breaking hammers and drivers' jackets were also stolen from the buses.
Each bus is constructed with passengers' safety in mind. For example, the body frame is constructed using Galvanyl (Zn - Fe Alloy), a strong and rust-resistant metal. There are also eight or ten glass-shattering hammers mounted on some of the window frames, and three emergency doors for fast evacuation during an emergency. There are also two fire extinguishers at the front and back of the buses.
The Mercedes-Benz OH and Hino RG air-conditioned buses are painted red and yellow, with a picture of a young brahminy kite, which looks very similar to a bald eagle grasping a tree branch with three snakefruit on it. The buses use special fuel which is (a mix of diesel and biodiesel). For Corridor 2 (bus colors: blue and white) and 3 (bus colors: yellow and red), the buses are CNG-fueled Daewoo buses imported from South Korea. Due to various coachbuilders being involved and design tweaks applied over time, the exterior and interior appearance, quality, and comfort varies between buses operating in the same corridor.
The capacity of each bus is 30 seated and 55 standing passengers, though during rush hours these numbers are often exceeded by up to 80 passengers per bus.
TransJakarta also operates Chinese-made Huanghai, Zhongtong, Ankai, local-made Komodo and Inobus articulated buses on long and straight corridors, such as Corridor 5.
The passenger doors are higher than on normal buses so that passengers can only board from designated shelters. The doors employ automated folding mechanisms which can be manually controlled by the driver. Because the normal folding doors cannot open properly when the bus is overcrowded, buses on corridors II and III use sliding doors in order to accommodate the surge of passengers during rush hours. Protective full-height acrylic glass barriers are installed behind passenger seats close to the sliding door mechanism.
Seats in all buses face the aisle to optimize passengers' movement during rush hours. Corridor 1 buses use comfortable cushioned bus seats, the buses from subsequent corridors have less cushioned, hence less comfortable, seats.
Each bus is equipped with an electronic board and speakers that announce the name of shelters in two languages, Indonesian and English. Each bus is also equipped with a bi-directional radio transceiver to allow the driver to provide and receive updated information regarding traffic jams, road accidents or lost items.
To keep the air fresh, especially during rush hours each bus is equipped with automatic air freshener dispensers which periodically spray car fragrance.
In August 2011, TransJakarta operator has installed cameras on one bus for a trial period. The plan is to install four cameras on each bus gradually in efforts to improve services such as to inform passengers waiting for buses about how crowded approaching buses are, and to prevent sexual harassment on its service.
Starting April 21, 2016, TransJakarta launched several new female-only buses for Corridor 1. The bus is crewed by female driver and female onboard officers, and is painted pink to distinguish it from regular buses.
TransJakarta shelters are different from ordinary bus stops. They are usually located in the middle of the road and are reached by elevated bridges. Some stops are equipped with escalator or lift and designed to be integrated to the nearby building in the vicinity. For example, Tosari ICBC stop is connected directly to the UOB Plaza and Blok M stop is connected directly into Mal Blok M via stair access.
The shelters are made from aluminum, steel, and glass. Air ventilation works through fins on the aluminum part of the shelters. Floors are made from tread plate, although newer shelters now use concrete. The shelters are equipped with platform screen doors. Some of the connecting elevated bridge ramps have gentle slopes (with some exceptions) to accommodate the disabled. One disadvantage of some of the ramps is that passengers need to walk a relatively long way up the ramps and then double back to reach the boarding shelters. The floors of the bridge are mostly tread plates although some are made from concrete. One problem with the tread plate is that considerable noise is generated by the movement of passengers across the tread plate surfaces. Another problem is that some of the tread plate surfaces can become very slippery during the rainy season. There are no sanitary facilities in most of the shelters.
Bus stops are open from 05:00 – 22:00 although opening hours can be extended if there are passengers still waiting at closing time. Shelters often become extremely overcrowded because of long and sometimes unpredictable intervals between buses. According to a report from the Indonesian Consumers Protection Foundation in 2011, the most common complaint from passengers about the service offered by Transjakarta was the lengthy waiting time for buses at some of the main shelters.
A free daily internal bulletin, 'Trans Kota', is occasionally available at selected shelters. The content includes sport, showbusiness, crime, health, various tips and tricks, consumer information and TransJakarta news.
The large Harmoni Central Busway (HCB) shelter on Jalan Gadjah Mada, Central Jakarta, is built over the Ciliwung River. It is a transit point between Corridors 1, 2, 3, 7A, and 8. This 500-person shelter has 14 bus bays. Although many trees had to be sacrificed during the construction of it, an old banyan tree was not chopped down because it was considered rich in historical value. However, in October 2006 this tree was vandalized by people from the Pemuda Persatuan Islam religious group. Their motive was to show that the tree does not possess supernatural qualities.
Ticketing and fares
The cost of a TransJakarta ticket since its opening has been a flat rate of Rp 2.000,- at concessional times (05.00a.m. to 07.00a.m.) and Rp 3.500,- (about 27 US cents) at all other times. Passengers who wish to change direction or transit to other corridors do not need to pay again, provided they do not exit the shelter. An exception is in effect at the line terminus.
Passengers can purchase a single-journey paper ticket at the ticket booth in the shelter. In 2013, TransJakarta introduced the use of prepaid cards or e-tickets for passenger use. The prepaid cards that are eligible as ticket are bank-issued cards of BRI BRizzi, BCA Flazz, BNI Tapcash, Mandiri e-money, Bank DKI JakCard, and Bank Mega MegaCash. The prepaid cards can be purchased and topped-up at any ticket booth in the shelter throughout the system, or at the ATM of the issuing bank. The prepaid cards, except for Bank DKI JakCard and Bank Mega MegaCash, are also valid as ticket in the Jabodetabek Commuter Train system as of June 2014, easing the integration plan between the BRT and the commuter train system. In April and May 2014, the TransJakarta management started the compulsory use of the e-tickets at several terminus in the system, based on news said that the BCA Flazz Card can also be used in Jabodetabek Commuter Train. In mid-October 2014, 56 percent passengers have used e-tickets. Now, all TransJakarta corridors and shelters applied the compulsory use of the e-tickets, since February 21, 2015. August 17, 2016 marks the start of tap-out system trial in Corridor 1 (Blok M - Kota), while similar trial was started on September 9, 2016 in Corridor 2. The system is meant to control the flow of people going in and out of the shelters, discourage illegal entrance to and exit from the shelters, and to encourage sales and usage of the "e-tickets". In October 2016, the system had been implemented in all corridors of TransJakarta.
During rush hours, people from upper or middle classes (one of the main targets of TransJakarta) usually prefer to use private cars or taxis to avoid inconvenience of the overcrowded TransJakarta buses even though they have to bear with traffic jams instead. Many passengers are thus lower-middle-class people who are ex-users of other less comfortable and/or more expensive commercial buses.
This situation is at odds with one of the objectives of TransJakarta which was to reduce traffic jam during rush hours by persuading private car owners to use comfortable public transport.
There is a special program for the student groups called TransJakarta goes to school. Participants in program there are assigned a dedicated bus. The aim is to train students to stand in line, be decent, and prefer public transport than personal vehicles.
Since the first commencement in 2004, 15 corridors has been planned with 12 corridors now operational. Corridors 13, 14, and 15 are designed to be a grade-separated elevated BRT line, with Corridor 13 now under construction progress. TransJakarta BRT network is connected with KRL Commuter Jabodetabek and Jakarta MRT in Corridor 13, which is set to be completed in 2016.
Other than main BRT routes, TransJakarta operates 11 BRT express routes (shortened version of the normal BRT routes), 25 city bus routes integrated to BRT stations, 10 suburban routes to satellite cities, and 8 routes serving low cost apartments.
In addition to the 15 main corridors, TransJakarta, in cooperation with other public transportation companies, provides feeder buses to passengers from suburbs outside Jakarta to bus termini.