Theron Rudd Strong (November 7, 1802 Salisbury, Litchfield County, Connecticut – May 14, 1873) was an American lawyer and politician from New York,
He studied law at Litchfield Law School. He was admitted to the bar in 1821, and commenced practice in Palmyra. In 1833, he married Abbie Louise Hart (1814–1840), daughter of State Senator Truman Hart.
Theron R. Strong was District Attorney of Wayne County from 1835 to 1839.
Strong was elected as a Democrat to the 26th United States Congress, and served from March 4, 1839, to March 3, 1841.
He was a member from Wayne County of the New York State Assembly in 1842.
He was a justice of the New York Supreme Court (7th District) from 1852 to 1859, and ex officio a judge of the New York Court of Appeals in 1858. He removed to Rochester, New York, the seat of the district bench, and afterwards resumed the practice of law there.
He removed to New York City in 1867, and continued the practice of law.
He was buried at the Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester.
Congressman William Strong, of Pennsylvania, was his cousin.