Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Jewels, Sylvia, Serenade, Le Spectre de la rose, The Tempest
The Sleeping Beauty (Russian: Спящая красавица / Spyashchaya krasavitsa) is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, first performed in 1890. The music was composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (his opus 66). The score was completed in 1889, and is the second of his three ballets. The original scenario was conceived by Ivan Vsevolozhsky, and is based on Charles Perrault's La Belle au bois dormant. The choreographer of the original production was Marius Petipa.
- Composition history
- Performance history
- Roles and original cast
- Piano arrangements
- Auroras Wedding by Sergei Diaghilev
- Trademark controversy
The premiere performance took place at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg on January 15, 1890. The work has become one of the classical repertoire's most famous ballets.
Tchaikovsky was approached by the Director of the Imperial Theatres in St. Petersburg, Ivan Vsevolozhsky on 25 May 1888 about a possible ballet adaptation on the subject of the story of Undine. It was later decided that Charles Perrault's La Belle au bois dormant would be the story for which Tchaikovsky would compose the music for the ballet. Tchaikovsky did not hesitate to accept the commission, although he was aware that his only previous ballet, Swan Lake, met with little enthusiasm at that stage of his career. The ballet scenario that Tchaikovsky worked on was based on the Brothers Grimm's version of Perrault's work entitled 'Dornröschen'. In that version, the Princess's parents (the King and the Queen) survived the 100-year sleep to celebrate the Princess's wedding to the Prince. However, Vsevolozhsky incorporated Perrault's other characters from his stories into the ballet, such as Puss in Boots, Little Red Riding Hood, Cinderella, Bluebird, Bluebeard, Ricky of the Tuft and Tom Thumb. Other French fairy tale characters to be featured are Beauty and the Beast, Pretty Goldilocks and The White Cat. Regardless, Tchaikovsky was happy to inform the Director of the Imperial Theatre that he had great pleasure studying the work and had come away with adequate inspiration to do it justice.
The choreographer was Marius Petipa, ballet master of the Imperial Ballet, who wrote a very detailed list of instructions as to the musical requirements. Tchaikovsky worked quickly on the new work at Frolovskoye; he began initial sketches in the winter of 1888 and began orchestration on the work on 30 May 1889.
The ballet's focus was undeniably on the two main conflicting forces of good (the Lilac Fairy) and evil (Carabosse); each has a leitmotif representing them, which run through the entire ballet, serving as an important thread to the underlying plot. Act III of the work, however, takes a complete break from the two motifs and instead places focus on the individual characters of the various court dances.
St. Petersburg premiere (world premiere)
Other notable productions
Roles and original cast
The ballet's premiere received more favorable accolades than Swan Lake from the press but Tchaikovsky never had the luxury of being able to witness his work become an instant success in theatres outside of Russia. He died in 1893. By 1903, The Sleeping Beauty was the second most popular ballet in the repertory of the Imperial Ballet (the Petipa/Pugni The Pharaoh's Daughter was first), having been performed 200 times in only 10 years.
A production mounted at the La Scala in Milan did not arouse much interest and it was not until 1921 that, in London, the ballet finally gained wide acclaim and eventually a permanent place in the classical repertoire. In 1999, the Mariinsky Ballet reconstructed the original 1899 production, including reproductions of the original sets and costumes. Although the 1951 Kirov production by Konstantin Sergeyev is available on DVD/Video, the 1999 "authentic" version is only available in short excerpts as of 2007.
The Sleeping Beauty is Tchaikovsky's longest ballet, lasting nearly four hours at full length - counting the intermissions. Without intermissions (as it appears on several CD sets), it lasts nearly three hours. It is nearly always cut.
At the premiere Tsar Alexander III summoned Tchaikovsky to the imperial box. The Tsar made the simple remark 'Very nice,' which seemed to have irritated Tchaikovsky, who had likely expected a more favorable response.
The Royal Court:
The Four Suitors:
The Prince's Hunting Party:
Prologue (The Christening)
King Florestan XXIV and his Queen have welcomed their first child, Princess Aurora, and declare a grand christening ceremony to honor her. Six fairies are invited to the ceremony to bestow gifts on the child. Each fairy represents a virtue or positive trait, such as beauty, courage, sweetness, musical talent, and mischief (the names of fairies and their gifts vary in productions). The most powerful fairy, the Lilac Fairy, arrives with her entourage, but before she can bestow her gift, the palace grows dark. With a clap of thunder, the evil fairy Carabosse arrives (typically played by a female character dancer or a male dancer in drag, and can be shown as an ugly hag or as a younger woman) with her minions (generally several male dancers depicted as rats, monsters, or insects). Carabosse furiously asks the King and Queen why she had not received an invitation to the christening. The blame falls to Catallabutte, the Master of Ceremonies who was in charge of the guest list. Carabosse gleefully tears his wig off and beats him with her staff, before placing a curse upon the baby princess as revenge: Aurora will indeed grow up to be a beautiful, healthy, delightful young lady, but on her sixteenth birthday she will prick her finger on a spindle and die. The King and Queen are horrified and beg Carabosse for mercy, but she shows none. However, the Lilac Fairy intervenes. Though she does not have enough power to completely undo the curse, she alters it, allowing the spindle to cause a peaceful 100-year sleep for the princess, rather than death. At the end of those 100 years, she will be woken by the kiss of a handsome prince. Relieved that Aurora's life will ultimately be spared, the court is set at ease.
Act I (The Spell)
It is the day of Princess Aurora's sixteenth birthday. Celebrations are underway, though the King is still unsettled by Carabosse's omen. Catallabutte discovers several peasant ladies knitting nearby (a forbidden activity, as it involves spindles potentially harmful to the princess) and alerts the King, who initially sentences the women to a harsh punishment. The Queen gently persuades him to spare the innocent citizens, and he agrees. The townsfolk perform an elaborate waltz with flower garlands, and Princess Aurora arrives afterwards. She is introduced to four suitors by her doting parents. Aurora and the suitors perform the famous Rose Adagio, one of the most notoriously difficult sequences in all of ballet. Presently, a cloaked stranger appears and offers a gift to the princess: a spindle. Having never seen one before, Aurora curiously examines the strange object as her parents desperately try to intervene. As predicted, she pricks her finger on the spindle (in some versions, the "gift" is a nonthreatening bouquet of flowers with the spindle hidden within). While initially appearing to recover quickly, she falls into a swoon and collapses. The cloaked stranger reveals herself to be Carabosse, who believes that her curse still stands and that the princess is dead. Once again, the Lilac Fairy quells the hubbub and reminds the King and Queen that Aurora is merely asleep. The princess is carried off to bed, and the Lilac Fairy casts a spell of slumber over the entire kingdom, which will only be broken when Aurora awakens. She then uses her magic to cover the castle in layers of vines and brambles.
Act II (The Vision)
One hundred years later, Prince Désiré is at a hunting party with his companions. He is in a mopey mood, unhappy with his bossy countess girlfriend. His friends try to cheer him up with a game of blind man's bluff and a series of dances. Still unhappy, he asks for some time to himself, and the hunting party departs. Alone in the forest, he is met by the Lilac Fairy, who has chosen him to awaken Aurora. She shows him a vision of the beautiful princess, and the prince is immediately smitten. The Lilac Fairy explains the situation, and Désiré begs to be taken to the princess. The Lilac Fairy takes him by boat to the castle and guides through the deep forest until at last, they reach the hidden castle. Carabosse makes one last attempt to cement her vengeful curse, but the Lilac Fairy and the prince manage to defeat her together at last. Once inside the castle, Désiré awakens Aurora with a kiss. The rest of the court wakes as well, and the King and Queen heartily approve when the prince proposes marriage and the princess accepts.
Act III (The Wedding)
The royal wedding is underway. Guests include the Jewel Fairies: Diamond, Gold, Silver and Sapphire, and of course the Lilac Fairy. Fairytale characters are in attendance, including Puss in Boots and The White Cat, Princess Florine and the Bluebird, Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf, Cinderella and Prince Charming, Beauty and the Beast, and others. Aurora and Désiré perform a grand Pas de Deux, and the entire ensemble dances a mazurka. The prince and princess are married, with the Lilac Fairy blessing the union. The ballet ends with a grand apotheosis (apothéose) where all the characters come together with a tableau depicting the Sun God, Helios and King Louis XIV.
Titles of all of the numbers listed here come from Marius Petipa's original scenario, as well as the original libretto and programs of the first production of 1890. Major changes which were made to the score for Petipa's original production are mentioned, and help explain why the score is often heard in different versions in theatres today.
All libretti and programs of works performed on the stages of the Imperial Theatres were titled in French, which was the official language of the Emperor's Court, as well as the language in which balletic terminology is derived.
Prologue — Le baptême de la Princesse AuroreNo.1-a Introduction No.1-b Marche de salon No.2-a Entrée des fées No.2-b Scène dansante No.3 Grand pas d'ensemble (a.k.a. Pas de six) — a. Grand adage. Petit allégro b. Variation - Candide c. Variation - Coulante–Fleur de farine d. Variation - Miettes–qui tombent (a.k.a. breadcrumb) e. Variation - Canari–qui chante f. Variation - Violente–échevelée g. Variation - La Fée des lilas–voluptueuse h. Coda générale No.4 Scène et final— a. Entrée de Carabosse b. Scène mimique de Carabosse c. Scène mimique de la Fée des lilas
Act I — Les quatre fiancés de la Princesse AuroreNo.5-a Introduction No.5-b Scène des tricoteuses No.6 Grande valse villageoise (a.k.a. The Garland Waltz) No.7 Entrée d'Aurore No.8 Grand pas d'action— a. Grand adage à la rose (opening harp cadenza possibly extended by either the harpist Albert Heinrich Zabel or Riccardo Drigo) b. Danse des demoiselles d'honneur et des pages c. Variation d'Aurore (coda edited by an unknown hand, possibly Riccardo Drigo) d. Coda No.9 Scène et final— a. Danse d'Aurore avec le fuseau b. Le charme c. L'arrivée de la Fée des lilas
Act III — Les Noces de Désiré et d'AuroreNo.21 Marche No.22 Grand polonaise dansée (a.k.a. The Procession of the Fairy Tales) Grand divertissement— No.23 Pas de quatre a. Entrée b. Variation de la fée-Or (transferred by Petipa to Act II as a variation for Carlotta Brianza in the original production) c. Variation de la fée-Argent (changed by Petipa in the original production – Pas de trois pour la Fées d'Or, d'Argent et de Saphir) d. Variation de la fée-Saphir (cut by Petipa from the original production) e. Variation de la fée-Diamant f. Coda
In 1890, Alexander Siloti was approached to arrange the music for piano duet. He declined, but suggested his then 17-year-old cousin Sergei Rachmaninoff would be more than competent. This offer was accepted, although Siloti supervised the arrangement. Rachmaninoff himself arranged the entire score for piano solo.
Aurora's Wedding by Sergei Diaghilev
In 1922, ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev arranged a 45-minute version of the final act for his Ballets Russes, entitled Aurora's Wedding. This abridged version has been recorded by conductor Leopold Stokowski, in one of his last performances, and by Charles Dutoit.
The adaptation takes material from the Act I Introduction of the ballet and combines it with most of the final act, as well as other sections. The selections in this version are listed as follows:
- Introduction (Prologue)
- Polacca (Act 3)
- Pas de Six (Prologue)
- Scene; Danse des Duchesses; Danse des Marquises (Act 2)
- Farandole; Danse - Tempo di Mazurka (Act 2)
- Pas de Quatre (Act 3)
- Pas de Charactere - Chaperone Rouge et le Loup (Act 3)
- Pas de Quatre (Act 3)
- Coda - les trois Ivans (Act 3)
- Pas de Deux (Act 3)
- Finale - Tempo di Mazurka; Apothéose (Act 3)
The Walt Disney Company has registered a trademark with the US Patent and Trademark Office, filed 13 March 2007, for the name "Princess Aurora" that covers production and distribution of motion picture films; production of television programs; production of sound and video recordings. Some suggest that this may limit the ability to perform this ballet, from which Disney acquired some of the music for its animated 1959 film Sleeping Beauty.