Supriya Ghosh (Editor)


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Kingdom  Animalia
Clade  Paenungulata
Phylum  Chordata
Higher classification  Paenungulata
Tethytheria httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu

Clade  TethytheriaMcKenna 1975
Lower classifications  Sea cows, West Indian ma
Similar  Sirenia, Manatee, Dugongidae

Cenozoic mammals afrotheria tethytheria sirenia

Tethytheria is a clade of mammals that includes the sirenians and proboscideans, as well as the extinct order Embrithopoda.


tethytheria – Nix Illustration

Though there is strong anatomical and molecular support for the monophyly of Tethytheria, the interrelationships between the included taxa remain disputed. The tethytheres are united by several characters, including anteriorly facing orbits and more or less bilophodont cheek teeth (double transverse ridges on the crowns of the teeth). Proboscidea and Sirenia are linked together based on auditory characters in their petrosal bones, but this link may be a homoplasy. Desmostylians, traditionally considered tethytheres, have been tentatively assigned to Perissodactyla, along with the Early Eocene family Anthracobunidae, which was considered a sister group to Tethytheria.

Tethytheria is thought to have evolved from primitive hoofed mammals ("condylarths") along the shores of the ancient Tethys Ocean.


Cladogram modified from Rose 2006 and Cooper et al 2014.


Classification modified from Rose 2006.

  • Suborder Tethytheria
  • Infraorder †Embrithopoda
  • †Phenacolophidae
  • Arsinoitheriidae
  • Infraorder Sirenia
  • Prorastomidae
  • †Protosirenidae (Dugongidae?)
  • Dugongidae
  • Trichechidae
  • Infraorder Proboscidea
  • †Phosphatheriidae (Numidotheriidae?)
  • †Numidotheriidae
  • †Moeritheriidae
  • †Barytheriidae
  • Deinotheriidae
  • †Palaeomastodontidae
  • †Phiomiidae
  • †Hemimastodontidae
  • Mammutidae
  • †Gomphotheriidae
  • Elephantidae
  • References

    Tethytheria Wikipedia