The Teochew people (also known as Chaozhou in Mandarin or Chiuchow in Cantonese) are a Chinese people native to the historical Chaozhou prefecture (now the Chaoshan region) of eastern Guangdong province who speak the Teochew dialect. Today, most Teochew people live outside China in Southeast Asia, especially in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, and Indonesia. They can also be found almost anywhere in the world, including North America, Australia and France.
The Teochew speak Chinese Teochew dialect of Southern Min; Teochew cuisine is also distinctive. The ancestors of the Teochew people moved to present-day Chaoshan from the Central Plains of China in order to escape from a series of civil wars during the Jin dynasty (265–420).
Teochew people Wikipedia
Teochew can be romanised in a variety of schemes, and are known in Mandarin as cháo zhōu rén and Cantonese as Chiuchao yan. In referring to themselves as ethnic Chinese, Teochew people generally use Deung nang (唐人; Mandarin: Tangren), literally Tang Dynasty people, as opposed to Hang nang (漢人/汉人; Mandarin: Hanren), which means 'Han Dynasty people'.
Teochew people of the diaspora would generally use Hua nang (華人/华人; Mandarin: Huaren) to indicate Chinese heritage in a cultural sense. Huanang and huaren are broadly used by Chinese people living outside of China, referring to their maintaining a substantial cultural identity they consider to be Chinese. The Teochew people are those who speak the Teochew language and share some ancestry with Teochew.
Teochew people also commonly refer to each other as ga gi nang (自己人; Mandarin: zijiren) which means 'our own people'.
Historically, these people were called Helao or Fulao (Hoklo), as they came mostly from Henan and Shanxi via Fujian, with well-maintained language and customs from ancient north-central China. As was recorded in pedigrees and ancient inscriptions, these people who had originally migrated to southern Fujian, especially from Quanzhou and Putian, made settlements toward Chaoshan in batches from Tang dynasty to Ming dynasty and soon spread all over the Chaoshan area.
Geographic isolation and difficulty in traveling in the past made the Helao or Fulao become a relatively closed population.
The Teochew people are known to Cantonese speakers as "Hoklo", literally meaning "men of Fujian", although the term “Teochew” was used in the Strait Settlements in the 19th century and early 20th century. "Teochew" is derived from Teochew prefecture (Chaozhou Fu) the departmental city where they originate.
From the 19th century, due to disadvantaged circumstances, significant numbers of Teochew people left their homeland for Singapore and a new life.
Early Teochew settlers could trace their origins to eight counties/prefectures: Chao'an, Chenghai, Chaoyang, Jieyang, Raoping, Puning, Huilai and Nan'ao. In addition to these, new immigrants leaving from Port Swatow, there were Teochew people relocating to Singapore from Siam and Riau Islands.
Today, Teochew is the second largest spoken Chinese language used in Singapore. They are the second largest dialect group in Singapore at 21% of the Chinese Population. As a result, they play a significant role in the opposition party scenes with oratorsSee also: 潮州裔臺灣人 (in Chinese)
Most of the Teochew descendants in Taiwan have already been "hokkienized" ("hoklonized"). They speak the Taiwanese Hokkien language instead of Teochew. Some of them consider themselves as being Hakka. However, there are still some Teochew in Chaojhou township (潮州鎮), in Pingtung County (屏東縣).
A 1926 Japanese census found that there were 134,800 people in Taiwan of Teochew ancestry.
Throughout the history of over 1000 years, the region of Chaoshan, anciently named Teochew Prefecture, has bred and evolved a prestigious culture, which manifests its unique characteristics in language, opera, cuisine, tea practice, music and embroidery.
The Teochew dialect (潮州話) is considered one of the oldest Chinese dialects as it preserves many features from ancient Chinese that have been lost in some counterparts. It is spoken by roughly 10 million people in Chaoshan and more than five million outside the Chinese mainland.
Teochew opera (潮劇) is a traditional art form which has a history of more than 500 years and is now loved by 20 million Teochew people in over 20 countries and regions. Based on local folk dances and ballads, Teochew opera has formed its own style under the influence of Nanxi Opera. Nanxi is one of the oldest Chinese operas and originated in the Song Dynasty. The old form of choral accompaniment still preserves its special features. Clowns and females are the most distinctive characters in a Teochew opera, and fan-play and acrobatic skills are prominent.
Teochew music (潮州音樂) is popularly played in Chaoshan's teahouse scene. The Teochew string instrument, gong, drum and traditional Chinese flute, are typically involved in ensembles. The current Chaozhou drum music is said to be similar to the form of the Drum and Wind Music of the Han and Tang Dynasties.
Teochew woodcarving(潮州木雕) is a form of Chinese woodcarving originating in the Tang Dynasty. It is very popular in Chaoshan. Teochew people used a great deal of Teochew wood carving in their buildings.
Yingge dance(英歌)is a form of Chinese folk dance originating in the Ming Dynasty. It is one of the most representative form of folk arts.
Although few movies or television dramas have been made of the Teochew people, one such notable drama is the Singaporean 1995 drama series The Teochew Family.
The people in this may include those who are fullblooded to partial Teochew ancestry.Mainland China
Huang Guangyu (黄光裕; Ng Guangyu; Wong Kwong Yu) (1969–; Chaoyang, Guangdong), founder and chairman of GOME Group; once the richest person in mainland China
Ma Huateng (馬化騰/马化腾; Bhê Huejam) (1971–; Chaoyang, Guangdong), General Manager of Tencent Computer System Co., Ltd and creator of QQ
Lin Shouzhi (林受之) (1873-1924), rubber merchant and supporter of Sun Yat-sen
Charles Heung (向華強)(1948-;Chaozhou, Guangdong; Born in Hong Kong) Hong Kong actor-turned-film producer and presenter. Founder of China Star Entertainment Group
Li Ka-shing (李嘉誠/李嘉诚; Li Jiacheng; Li Kaishing) (1928–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), founder and chairman of Cheung Kong Group; the richest person of Chinese and Chinese descent in the world; known for his enormous fortune, business acumen and generous charity work
Lim Por-yen (林百欣; Lin Baixin; Lim Bêhyan) (1914–2005; Chaoyang, Guangdong), founder of Lai Sun Group, media tycoon, banker and charitarian
Albert Yeung (楊受成/杨受成; Yang Shoucheng; Yêng Siuseng) (1944–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), founder and chairman of Emperor Group
Joseph Lau (劉鑾雄/刘銮雄; Liu Luanxong; Liu Luanghiong) (1951–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), founder, chairman and CEO of Chinese Estates Group
Vincent Lo (羅康瑞/罗康瑞; Luo Kangri; Lua Kangsui) (1948–; Puning, Guangdong), founder and chairman of Shui On Group
Low Kiok Chiang (1843–1911; born in Swatow, Guangdong), founder of Khiam Hoa Heng entreprises (1872–1950s)
Chin Sophonpanich (Thai: ชิน โสภณพนิช; Chinese: 陳弼臣) (1910–1988; Chaoyang, Guangdong; born in Thailand), founder of Bangkok Bank
Dhanin Chearavanont (Thai: ธนินท์ เจียรวนนท์; 謝國民/谢国民; Xie Guomin; Zia Gokmi) (1939–; Chenghai, Guangdong), CEO of Charoen Pokphand Group(Chia Tai Group)
Prachai Leophai-ratana (Thai: ประชัย เลี่ยวไพรัตน; 廖漢渲/廖汉渲; Liao Hanxuan; Liu Hangsuang) (Chao'an, Guangdong), founder and former CEO of Thai Petrochemical Industry (TPI) and TPI Polene
Chatri Sophonpanich (Thai: ชาตรี โสภณพนิช; 陳有漢/陈有汉; Chen Youhan; Tan U-hang) (1931–; Chaoyang, Guangdong), CEO of Bangkok Bank
Krit Ratanarak (李智正; Li Zhizheng; Li Dizian) (–; Chenghai, Guangdong), CEO of Siam City Cement Public Company Limited and Bank of Ayudhya Public Company Limited
Lien Ying Chow (連瀛洲/连瀛洲; Lian Yingzhou; Lian Yingzio) (1906–2004; Chaoyang, Guangdong), founder and CEO of Overseas Union Bank
Tang Choon Keng (董俊競/董俊竞; Dong Junjing; Dang Junggeng) (1901–2000; Shantou, Guangdong), founder of Tangs
Lim Nee Soon (林義順; Lin Yishun) (1879–1936; Shantou, Guangdong)
Lim Tau Yong (林道荣; Lin Daorong), millionaire founder of Emporium Holdings Singapore
Tan Sri William Cheng (鐘廷森/钟廷森; Zhong Tingsen; Tong Tingsiam) (Chaoyang, Guangdong), chairman of Lion Group and Parkson Retail Group
Tang Frères (陳氏兄弟, 陳克威陳克光; Chenshi Xiongdi, Chenkewei Chenkeguang; Tansi Hiandi, Tankiog-ui Tankiogguang) (Puning, Guangdong), founder and CEO of Tang Frères
David Tran (陳德) (1945-, Chaozhou, Guangdong, born in Saigon), founder of Huy Fong Foods
Quách Đàm (郭琰) (1863–1927; Chaozhou, Guangdong), founder of Bình Tây Market, one of the most famous and important markets in Cholon and Saigon; one of the richest people in Indochina at that time
Tram Be (1959–; Chaoshan, Guangdong; born in Vietnam), founder of Trieu An Hospital in Saigon; one of the richest people in Vietnam
Zheng Zhengqiu (鄭正秋/郑正秋; Dên Zianciu) (1888–1935; Chaoyang, Guangdong), director; his film Nan Fu Nan Qi (難夫難妻/难夫难妻; Nang Hu Nang Ci) was the first feature film in China's history
Cai Chusheng (蔡楚生; Cua Cosên) (1906–1968; Chaoyang, Guangdong), director; his film Yu Guang Qu (漁光曲/渔光曲; Heu Guang Kêg) received the first international film prize in China's history
Ringo Lam (林嶺東/林岭东; Lin Lindong; Lim Lingdang) (1954–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), director
Herman Yau (邱禮濤/邱礼涛; Qiu Litao; Yau Loito) (1961–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), director
Da-Wen Sun (孫大文/孙大文) (Chaozhou, Guangdong), world authority in food engineering education and research
Xu Dishan (许地山) (1893–1941; Jieyang, Guangdong), philosopher
Hong Zicheng (洪子誠/洪子诚; Hong Zeshin) (1939–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), scholar in the field of the history of literature
Chen Pingyuan (陳平原/陈平原; Tan Pêngnguang) (1954–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), literary professor
Tchan Fou-li (simplified Chinese: 陈复礼; traditional Chinese: 陳復禮; pinyin: Chen Fuli; 1916- ), founder of Chinese Photographic Association of Hong Kong and internationally known photographer
Zhao Tingyang (趙汀陽/赵汀阳; Dio Teng-iang) (1961–; Shantou, Guangdong), Chinese philosophy researcher
Jao Tsung-I (饒宗頤/饶宗颐; Rao Zongyi; Dziau Zong-i) (1917–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), Chinese scholar, poet, calligrapher and painter
Chua Lam (蔡澜/蔡瀾; Chai Lan; Cua Lam) (1941–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), columnist, food critic, and movie producer
Vincent Lam, born in Canada, novelist
Wena Poon (方慧娜) (1974–), born in Singapore, novelist
Alice Wong (黄陳小萍), Minister of State for Seniors; the first Chinese-Canadian woman sitting in Cabinet
Tan Soo Khoon (1949–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore), former Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore
Lee Boon Yang, former Minister for Information, Communications and the Arts
Teo Chee Hean, Deputy Prime Minister
Low Thia Khiang, Secretary-General, Workers’ Party, Member of Parliament for Aljunied
Lim Swee Say, Cabinet Minister in Prime Minister's Office
Lim Boon Heng, former Cabinet Minister
Baey Yam Keng, Member of Parliament, Tampines
Seng Han Thong, Member of Parliament, Yio Chu Kang
George Yeo, former Minister for Foreign Affairs (Singapore)
Teo Ser Luck, Senior Parliamentary Secretary for the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports and Ministry of Transport
Chiam See Tong, prominent Opposition Member of Parliament
Banharn Silpa-archa, 21st Prime Minister of Thailand
Chamlong Srimuang, former Deputy Prime Minister and Governor of Bangkok
Pridi Banomyong, 7th Prime Minister of Thailand
Taksin the Great, the first and only monarch of Thonburi kingdom
Chua Jui Meng, former Minister of Health
Chua Soi Lek, former Minister of Health
Chua Tee Yong, Member of Parliament
Guo Weiyang (1988–; Shantou, Guangdong; born in Yuxi, Yunnan), gymnast, gold medalist at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Liao Lisheng (1993–; Jiexi, Guangdong), footballer, Chinese international team player
Lin Yue (1991–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), diver, gold medalist at the 2008 and 2016 Summer Olympics
Sun Shuwei (1976–; Jieyang, Guangdong), diver, gold medalist at the 1992 Summer Olympics
Zhang Yanquan (1994–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), diver, gold medalist at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Michael Chang (1972–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in the United States), former professional tennis player
Tan Howe Liang (1933–; Shantou, Guangdong), the first Singaporean Olympic individual silver medalist
He Meitian (何美鈿/何美钿; He Meitian; Ho Muitiang) (1983–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), actress
Chen Chusheng (陳楚生/陈楚生; Tan Cosên) (1981–; Puning, Guangdong; born in Sanya, Hainan), singer
Chrissie Chau (周秀娜) (1985–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), actress and model
Canti Lau (劉錫明/劉锡明; Liu Ximing; Liu Siahmêng) (1964–; Chaoyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
Sammul Chan (陳鍵鋒/陈键锋; Chén Jiànfēng; Chan Gin-fung) (1978–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor, singer
Emil Chau (周華健/周华健; Zhou Huajian; Chiu Hua-giang) (1960–; Chaoyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
Matthew Ko (高鈞賢/高钧贤; Gao Junxian; Gao Jao-ghao) (1984–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), model
Kwong Wa (江華/江华; Jiang Hua; Gang Hua) (1962–; Shantou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
Miriam Yeung (楊千嬅/杨千桦; Yang Qianhua; Yêng Cainhua) (1974–; Jieyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actress and singer
Sammi Cheng (鄭秀文/郑秀文; Zheng Xiuwen; Dên Siu-mung) (1972–; Chenghai, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actress and singer
Ada Choi (蔡少芬/蔡少芬; Cai Shaofen; Choi Siufun) (1973–; Chaoshan, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actress
Steven Ma (馬浚偉/马浚伟; Ma FengWei; Maa Zeonwai) (1971–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
Stephen Wong Cheung-Hing (黃長興) (1978–; Shantou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor
Zoe Tay (郑惠玉/鄭惠玉; Zhèng Huìyù; Jeng Wai Yuk) (1968–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore), actress
Chen Shucheng (陈澍承) (1949–;Chaoshan, Chaozhou; born in Singapore, actor
Chen Liping(陈莉萍） (1965–;Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore, actress
Celest Chong (1973–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore), singer and actress
Stefanie Sun (孫燕姿/孙燕姿; Sun Yanzi; Sung Ince) (1978–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore), singer
Jessica Henwick (1992–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in United Kingdom), actress
Moon Lau Hong Kong actress
Jang Yong (Korean: 張龍/장용; 張龍/张龙; Zhang Long; Dion Leng) (1945–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in South Korea), actor
Limahong (林鳳/林凤; Lin Feng; Lim Hong) (15??–15??; Raoping, Chaozhou, Guangdong), pirate
Lê Văn Viễn (aka Bảy Viễn; Vien the seventh) (1904 – 1972; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Vietnam), leader of a powerful Vietnamese criminal organisation—Bình Xuyên Organisation
Somdet Phrachao Taksin Maharaj (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช) or Somdet Phrachao Krung Thonburi (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้ากรุงธนบุรี; Chinese: 鄭昭; pinyin: Zhèng Zhāo; Teochew: Dênchao) (1734–1782; Chenghai, Shantou, Guangdong; born in Thailand), former King of Thailand
Henry Lau (1989–; born in Canada), singer from Super Junior-M who is currently active in South Korea
Amber Liu (1992–; born in Los Angeles, California), singer from f(x) who is currently active in South Korea
Haing S. Ngor (1940–96); born in Samrong Yong, Cambodia. Khmer and partial Chinese Teochew, award winning actor.