It is bordered by Cabanatuan, Llanera, Science City of Muñoz, Aliaga, General Mamerto Natividad and Sto. Domingo.
Talavera is politically subdivided into 53 barangays.
Present-day Talavera was formerly a barrio of Cabanatuan City. It was called “Katugian” which means a place abundant in “Tugue,” an edible root crop.
The distance between Cabanatuan's town center and Katugian was critical during the early phase of its development although it was only 15 kilometres (9.3 mi). The parish-curate at that time recommended to the Spanish administrators a separate and independent administration of Katugian.
By a royal decree issued on November 12, 1852, the plan making Katugian a town was approved. There was no formal inauguration of the new town in accordance with the royal decree. However, the Augustinian parish-curate of Cabanatuan, Fr. Gregorio Crisostomo, appointed the first officials of the town by sending his co-adjutor, a certain Pedro Estanislao Pascual, to handle the religious phase of the administration of the new town during Sundays and Holidays only.
The first barrios that composed the new town were La Torre, Pulong Buli (Now Sto. Domingo), Concepcion and Valle. Based on the petition presented to the Alcalde Mayor (governor) of Nueva Ecija, forwarded to the governor general in Manila, the “Talavera of the Crown of the Princess” was approved on February 17, 1853, by the Governor General.
In 1954, Talavera lost some territory when the barrios of General Luna, Morcon, Mabini, Ricarte, Casili, and Picon, together with sitios Plaridel and Bosque were separated to form the town of Llanera along with some territory from Rizal and San Jose.
The municipality’s terrain is relatively flat, with slope ranging from 0 to 3%. Due to the flat topography, the land is suited for agricultural, commercial or industrial development.
Majority of Talavera's populace is Roman Catholic, served by St. Isidore the Worker Parish Church. Other religious groups have churches and places of worship in the municipality.
Many government projects beneficial to the municipality's citizens were constructed, including the Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology—Municipal Government of Talavera(NEUST–MGT), an extension campus of the said university; Talavera Eternal Park, the municipality's cemetery; a town library, a government-run drugstore, and a tourist attraction called Tren ng Bayan, a kiddie ride that goes around the town park.
There are also tourist attractions in Talavera. It has a town plaza situated near the municipal hall. Crystal Waves Hotel and Resort is a prominent attraction situated in Brgy. Dinarayat.
There are 24.77 kilometres (15.39 mi) of national roads, including the 16.93 kilometres (10.52 mi) Maharlika Highway/Asian Highway 26 that passes through the municipality. Due to its central location, the Municipality of Talavera is one of the pivotal transport points in Central Luzon.
Talavera is accessible by all means of land transportation. Regular jeepney trips are from 5:00 am to 9:00 pm. Tricycles are available 24 hours a day. Several bus companies also use the Talavera route from Cagayan Valley and Aurora Province to Manila, Cabanatuan City, San Jose City, Baguio City and other destinations.
In terms of education, Talavera is served by both public and DepEd-accredited private schools. The largest elementary school is Talavera Central School, situated in the town proper. The largest secondary educational institution is Talavera National High School, colloquially knows as TNHS.
In terms of healthcare, Talavera's populace is served by Dr. Paulino J. Garcia Memorial Hospital, a public hospital simply known as PJG. Medical and dental clinics also serve the municipality.