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Sultan Mahmud Mirza

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Reign  1494–1495
Name  Sultan Mirza
Grandparents  Muhammad
Father  Abu Sa'id Mirza
House  Timurid dynasty
Successor  Sultan Baysonqor Mirza
Parents  Abu Sa'id Mirza
Predecessor  Sultan Ahmed Mirza
Role  Abu Sa'id Mirza's son

Born  1453 Samarkand (1453)
Spouse  Khanzada Begum Khanzada Begum Pasha Begum Sultan Nigar Khanum concubines: Zuhreh Begi Aghacha two unnamed
Issue  Sultan Masud Mirza Baysonghor Sultan Mirza Mirza Sultan Ali Sultan Husayn Mirza Sultan Weis Mirza Ak Begum Bega Begum Zainab Sultan Begum Makhdum Sultan Begum Saliha Sultan Begum Rajeb Sultan Begum Moheb Sultan Begum three unnamed daughters
Died  1495, Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Children  Zainab Sultan Begum, Makhdum Sultan Begum
Similar People  Umar Shaikh Mirza II, Gulbadan Begum, Babur, Humayun

Sultan Mahmud Mirza (c. 1453 – January 1495) was a prince Timurid branch of Transoxiana, son of Abu Sa'id Mirza.



His father gave him the government of Hisar and Termez in 1459 (according to Babur Astarabad), but lost to Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara according Babur gave two major battles: at Astarabad, where he was defeated and Chikman (Sarai) near Andikhud equally defeated, around 1465, returning to Herat. His father restored in 1466. His father made an expedition to the Azerbaijan in 1468, but was defeated in the winter of 1468 to 1469 and was taken prisoner and was executed on 5 February 1469. Sultan Mahmud left his government to Herat with the support of Qambar Ali Beg, Governor of Hisar, who had accompanied Abu Sa'id had returned to Iraq; Mahmud came to this city with an army on 16 March but approaching Prince Hussain Baykara, another branch of the Timurid, with the help of the Uzbeks, had to remove it and Baykara Sultan proclaimed the 24th of March of 1469. Sultan Ahmad Mirza, who ruled in Samarkand where he was and had been proclaimed sultan brother (father and mother) of Sultan Mahmud, marched from the capital determined to reconquer Herat, but after an interview with his brother Mahmoud, who had arrived in Samarkand, withdrew. Then Amir Khusraw and Qambar Ali Shah, with the consent of Sultan Mirza Ahmad, took him to Hisar to rule there and later dominated the territories south of Quhqa (Quhlugha) and mountains to the Hindu Kohtin Kush Range, including Termez, Caghaniyan, Hisan, Khuttalan, Kunduz and Badakhshan.

In 1470 Sultan Mahmud Mirza of Hisar and Shaykh Umar Mirza of Andijan (Fergana) allied to attack Samarkand but through the mediation of a religious leader they have agreed to make peace. 1471 the hakim of Balkh, Ahmad Mushtak (or Mushtaq), known as Khoja Ahrar, revolted and Mirza Mahmud was going to support Balkh in person. Hussain Baykara besieged Balkh for four months. It is not known when Baykara recovered Balkh.

In 1479 he killed his brother Mirza Abu Bakr, and took control of Badakhshan, Kunduz, Khuttalan and Caghaniyan. Upon the death of his brother Sultan Ahmad Mirza of Samarkand in the middle of July 1494, less than two difference in the death of another brother Shaykh Umar Mirza of Andijan and Ferghana Valley (8 June 1494), Mirza Mahmud was presented to Samarkand and proclaimed sultan. It was well known that there was no living children Ahmad Mirza either because they were too young, and ruled six months, dying of disease then in January 1495 at age 43 (within eight months died three brothers).

According Baber was twice Kafiristan, south of Badakhshan, and made holy war and this was called Sultan Mahmud Ghazi. The emirs began to dispute the power to the middle of the sons of princes Shaykh Umar, including Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, and the children of Mirza Mahmud.

Death and aftermath

Sultan Mahmud Mirza died in 1495. His son Mirza Baysoonkar, ascended the throne at Samarkand.


He married four times and had one known concubine:

  1. Khanzada Begum, daughter of Mir Buzurg of Termez;
  2. Pasha Begum, daughter of Ali Sher Beg, an amir of Kara Koyunlu;
  3. Khanzada Begum, granddaughter of Mir Buzurg, the daughter of a brother of Khanzada Begum;
  4. Sultan Nigar Khanum, daughter of Yunus Khan;
  5. Zuhra Begi Aghacha, an Uzbek; principle concubine.


He had five sons and eleven daughters:

  • Sultan Masud Mirza (son of Khanzada Begum)
  • Baysoonkur Mirza or Baysonghor Sultan Mirza (son of Pasha Begum)
  • Mirza Sultan Ali (son of Zuhra Begi Aghacha)
  • Mirza Husayn (son of the second Khanzada Begum)
  • Sultan Weis Mirza known as Mirza Khan (son of Sultan Nigar Khanum)
  • an unnamed daughter, wife of Ababeker Kashghari (daughter of the second Khanzada Begum)
  • Ak Begum, wife of Jahangir Mirza, brother of Babur (daughter of the second Khanzada Begum)
  • Bega Begum, wife of Haider Mirza (daughter of the second Khanzada Begum)
  • Zainab Sultan Begum, wife of Babur (daughter of the second Khanzada Begum)
  • Makhdum Sultan Begum (daughter of Zuhra Begi Aghacha)
  • Rajeb Sultan Begum (daughter of a concubine)
  • Moheb Sultan Begum (daughter of a concubine)
  • Saliha Sultan Begum, wife of Babur after the death of Zainab Sultan Begum (daughter of Pasha Begum)
  • Two unnamed other daughters by Pasha Begum
  • References

    Sultan Mahmud Mirza Wikipedia

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