The South Society (sometimes translated as Southern Society or Nan Society) (Chinese: 南社, Pinyin: Nán Shè), was the largest literature and poetry organization during the late Qing Dynasty China and the early period of Republican China.
The society was founded on November 13, 1909 in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. The name of the society was from the phrase “操南音，不忘其旧” (speak Wu dialect, not to forget the tradition). The founding members were all from the Tongmenghui, an influential revolutionary organization during the late-Qing era. Chen Qubing (陳去病, 1874–1933, a native from Suzhou), Gao Xu (高旭, 1877－1925, a native from current Shanghai Jinshan District), and Liu Yazi (柳亞子, 1887－1958, a native of Suzhou) were three founding fathers of society.
The society had many branches in different cities in China especially in Yangtze River Delta region, such as Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Shaoxing. The society also expended to Guangzhou (the capital city of Guangdong Province) and Shenyang (the capital city of Liaoning province). It had 1180 members in 1911. The society had its own press and a series of publications.
The society was dissociated in 1923 for the first time. Its activities were remained until 1940s.
The society was closely involved in many political movements, especially those anti-Qing Dynasty and then anti-Yuan Shikai movements.
The society also maintained close ties with organizations in Japan and Korea.