Shah Abdul Aziz
| 1703Delhi, India|
Muhaddtih, Faqeeh, Sufi, Historiographer, bibliographer
August 20, 1762, Delhi, New Delhi
Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Husain Ahmad Madani, Ahmad Sirhindi, Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
Qutb ad-Din Ahmad Wali Allah ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahim al-‘Umari ad-Dihlawi (Arabic: قطب الدين أحمد ولي الله بن عبد الرحيم العمري الدهلوي; 1703–1762), commonly known as Shah Waliullah Dehlawi, was an Islamic scholar, muhaddith and reformer.
Shah Waliullah Dehlawi Wikipedia
Shah Waliullah was born Ahmad in 1703 to Shah Abdur Rahim, a compiler of the compilation of the Hanafi lexicon, Fatawa-e-Alamgiri. His father was the founder of the Madarssa-i-Rahimiya. Shah Abdur Rahim was on the committee appointed by Aurangzebfor compilation of the code of law, Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. His grandfather, Sheikh Wajihuddin, was an important officer in the army of Shah Jahan.
He had a son who was also a famous religious scholar, Shah Abdul Aziz.
Shah Walliullah received his early education in Madarssa e Rehmaniya and at the age of 15 he was able to master all major branches of Islamic learning.He was such a brilliant student that at the age of 17 he succeeded his father as the Shiekh of madarssa.He taught there for twelve years.Afterwards he went for Hajj and higher studies in 1724.In Madinah,he studied under the influence of a renowned religious scholar of his time,Shiekh Abu Tahir bin Ibrahim and studied in Madinah for 14 years where he started thinking on the decline of Muslims of Sub-continent and ways to solve these internal issues and external forces.
He died in 1762.
His works have influence over both orthodox Muslim and Sufis. His magnum opus, Hujjat Allah Balaghah to instruct Sufis to conform with orthodoxy, he states:
"Some people think that there is no usefulness involved in the injunct of Islamic law and that in actions and rewards as prescribed by God there is no beneficial purpose. They think that the commandments of Islamic law are similar to a master ordering his servant to lift a stone or touch a tree in order to test his obedience and that in this there is no purpose except to impose a test so that if the servant obeys, he is rewarded, and i, he is punished. This view is completely incorrect. The traditions of the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi Wa Salam, Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) and consensus of opinion of those ages, contradict this view."(The Sacred Knowledge), ed. D. Pendlebury, trans. G. Jalbani, The Sacred Knowledge, London: Octagon, 1982.
Al-Khayr al-kathir (The Abundant Good), trans. G. Jalbani, Lahore: Ashraf, 1974.
Hujjat Allah al-baligha (The Profound Evidence of Allah), Lahore: Shaikh Ghulam Ali and Sons, 1979. Considered his most important work. First published in Rae Bareily, India in 1286 Hijri.
Sata'at (Manifestations), trans. into Urdu by S.M. Hashimi, Lahore: Idarah Thaqafat Islamiyya, 1989; trans. into English by G. Jalbani, Sufism and the Islamic Tradition: the Lamahat and Sata'at of Shah Waliullah, London.
Lamahat (Flashes of Lightning), Hyderabad: Shah Wali Allah Academy, 1963; trans. G. Jalbani, Sufism and the Islamic Tradition: the Lamahat and Sata'at of Shah Waliullah, London, 1980. (One of the important writings on Sufism.)
Fuyud al-haramayn (Emanations or Spiritual Visions of Mecca and Medina).
Al-Tafhimat (Instructions or Clear Understanding), Dabhail, 1936, 2 vols. (One of the most comprehensive metaphysical works.)
Al-Budur al-bazighah (The Full Moons Rising in Splendour).
Besides these he is also credited being the first to translate the Quran into Persian in the Indian subcontinent.