Curry grew up in Charlotte, North Carolina, while his father, Dell, played for the Charlotte Hornets. As a child, Curry's father would take him and his older brother, Stephen, to his games where they would often shoot around with the team in warm-ups. Curry is a 2008 graduate of Charlotte Christian School where he was a three-year starter for the Knights' basketball team. His senior year, Curry averaged 22.3 points, 5.0 rebounds, and 5.0 assists while shooting 52 percent from the field. At the end of the season, he earned all-conference, all-state, and first team SAA All-American accolades. In his three years on varsity, Charlotte Christian amassed a 105–24 overall record including a state final appearance in 2006. Curry was also on the Charlotte Christian academic honor roll all four years.
After high school, Curry chose to attend Liberty University. In his freshman season at Liberty, he led all freshmen nationally in average points per game scored with 20.2 a game. Curry broke the Big South Conference single-season scoring record for a freshman. He wore the number 30 jersey at Liberty; the same number his dad and older brother wore in their careers.
Curry transferred from Liberty University to Duke after the 2008–09 season. Per transfer rules, Curry sat out the 2009–10 basketball season. At Duke, he also chose to wear his family number 30.
As a redshirt sophomore, Curry was named a starter after a toe injury sidelined Kyrie Irving. In a game against Miami (Ohio), Curry led the team with 17 points on 57% shooting. He scored a season high 22 points against North Carolina on February 9, 2011. On December 29, 2012, he scored a career-high 31 against Santa Clara. At the end of his senior year, Curry was named to the All-ACC first team and was named a second team All-American by Sporting News.
Curry went undrafted in the 2013 NBA draft. On August 23, 2013, he signed a non-guaranteed contract with the Golden State Warriors. He was, however, later waived by Golden State on October 25, 2013, after appearing in six preseason games.
On November 1, 2013, Curry was acquired by the Santa Cruz Warriors of the NBA Development League as an affiliate player. On November 22, in his D-League debut, Curry recorded 36 points on 12-of-19 shooting, as well as 6 assists and 3 rebounds. On December 24, he signed with the Memphis Grizzlies. On January 5, 2014, Curry both made his NBA debut and was waived by the Grizzlies. Four days later, he was reacquired by the Santa Cruz Warriors.
On February 3, 2014, Curry was named to the Futures All-Star roster for the 2014 NBA D-League All-Star Game.
On March 21, 2014, Curry signed a 10-day contract with the Cleveland Cavaliers. The next day, he appeared in his second NBA game, recording three points in nine minutes of action against the Houston Rockets. The Cavaliers decided not to offer Curry a second 10-day contract, and he returned to Santa Cruz the following day. Curry finished the 2013–14 NBA D-League season with averages of 19.7 points, 3.1 rebounds, 5.8 assists and 1.4 steals in 38 games.
During his time at Santa Cruz, Curry played in the back court with Mychel Thompson. At the same time their respective brothers, Stephen and Klay, were playing together in the Golden State backcourt in a tandem nicknamed the "Splash Brothers."
In July 2014, Curry joined the Orlando Magic for the Orlando Summer League and the Phoenix Suns for the Las Vegas Summer League. On September 29, 2014, he signed with the Magic. On October 7, 2014, Curry's D-League rights were acquired by the Magic's affiliated team, the Erie BayHawks, in a trade with the Santa Cruz Warriors. This was done in preparation for Curry returning to the D-League following training camp, as the Magic were now able to send him to their affiliated team instead of Curry returning to Santa Cruz. As anticipated the Magic waived Curry at the conclusion of training camp on October 25, and five days later he was acquired by the Erie BayHawks for the start of D-League training camp. In his debut for Erie in the team's season opener on November 14, Curry scored 23 points on 9-of-24 shooting in a win over the Idaho Stampede. On February 4, 2015, he was named to the Futures All-Star team for the 2015 NBA D-League All-Star Game for the second time in his career.
On March 11, 2015, Curry signed a 10-day contract with the Phoenix Suns. He made his Suns debut later that day in a 106–97 win over the Minnesota Timberwolves. He was not offered a second 10-day contract by the Suns following the expiration of his first on March 21, and subsequently returned to the BayHawks. In 43 games for Erie in 2014–15, he averaged 23.8 points, 3.9 rebounds, 4.2 assists and 1.4 steals per game.
In July 2015, Curry joined the New Orleans Pelicans for the 2015 NBA Summer League. After averaging 24.3 points per game in Las Vegas, Curry earned All-NBA Summer League first team honors. On July 22, he signed a two-year, $2 million guaranteed deal with the Sacramento Kings. Considered a "shooting guard trapped in a point guard's body", Curry's three-point shooting was a key reason the Kings signed him, as outside shooting has long been the Kings' Achilles heel. He made his debut for the Kings on October 30, recording two points, one rebound and one assist in a 132–114 win over the Los Angeles Lakers. On November 28, he scored a then career-high 9 points on 3-of-4 shooting and 3-of-3 from three-point range in a loss to the Golden State Warriors. On February 26, 2016, Curry played extended minutes in the Kings' 117–107 loss to the Los Angeles Clippers due to starting point guard Rajon Rondo sitting out with an injury. In 26 minutes of action off the bench, he recorded a then career-high 19 points and 4 rebounds. On March 25, he made his first career start, scoring 12 points in 26 minutes against the Phoenix Suns. Three days later, in just his third NBA start, Curry scored a career-high 21 points in a 105–93 loss to the Portland Trail Blazers. He matched his career high on April 1, scoring 21 points against the Miami Heat. On April 9, he made a career-high six three-pointers and scored 20 points on 6-of-10 shooting off the bench in a 114–112 win over the Oklahoma City Thunder. Two days later, he recorded his first career double-double with 20 points and a career-high 15 assists in a career-high 38 minutes of action as the starting point guard, helping the Kings defeat the Phoenix Suns 105–101.
After the 2015–16 season, Curry declined his $1 million player option for the 2016–17 season in order to become a restricted free agent. On June 27, 2016, the Kings tendered a qualifying offer to Curry, but on July 3, the team rescinded their qualifying offer, making Curry an unrestricted free agent.
On July 15, 2016, Curry signed with the Dallas Mavericks. He made his debut for the Mavericks in their season opener on October 26 against the Indiana Pacers. In 16 minutes off the bench, he recorded seven points, three rebounds, one assist and three steals in a 130–121 overtime loss. On November 8, he scored a then career-high 23 points in a 109–97 win over the Los Angeles Lakers. He tied that mark on November 21, scoring 23 points with five three-pointers as a starter in a 96–91 loss to the San Antonio Spurs. Curry missed four games in early December with a right knee sprain. On January 29, 2017, he had career highs of 24 points and 10 rebounds to lead the Mavericks to a 105–101 win over San Antonio. On February 24, 2017, he set a new career high with 31 points in a 97–84 loss to the Minnesota Timberwolves. Three days later, he had a 29-point effort to go with five three-pointers in a 96–89 win over the Miami Heat.
Curry competed for the United States in the 2009 FIBA Under-19 World Championship in New Zealand, winning the tournament by defeating Greece 88–80 in the final. For the tournament, Curry averaged 9.0 points, 2.2 rebounds and 1.1 assists per game.
Curry's father, Dell, is a former professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Both of his parents were athletes at Virginia Tech; Dell played basketball and Curry's mother, Sonya, played volleyball. His older brother, Stephen, is the starting point guard for the Golden State Warriors and a two-time NBA MVP, while his younger sister, Sydel, plays college volleyball at Elon University.