Harman Patil (Editor)

Seljuq dynasty

Updated on
Share on FacebookTweet on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on Reddit
10th century – Seljuq

Seljuq Empire Sultanate of Rum

Sultan of Seljuq Empire Sultan of Rum Emir of Damascus Emir of Aleppo

Damascus: 1104 – Baqtash was dethroned by Toghtekin Great Seljuq: 1194 – Toghrul III was killed in battle with Tekish Rum: 1307 – Mesud II died

The Seljuq dynasty or Seljuk Turks( /sɛldʒʊk/ SEL-juuk; Persian: آل سلجوق‎‎ Al-e Saljuq) was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Anatolia through Iran and were targets of the First Crusade.


Early history

The Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of the Oghuz Turks, who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy, in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan. During the 10th century, due to various events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities.

When Seljuq, the leader of the Seljuq clan, had a falling out with Yabghu, the supreme chieftain of the Oghuz, he split his clan off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz and set up camp on the west bank of the lower Syr Darya. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam. In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire. In 1025, 40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania. The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril, Chaghri, and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, and were given the title of dehqan. At the battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army, and after a successful siege of Isfahan by Tughril in 1050/51, they established an empire later called the Great Seljuk Empire. The Seljuqs mixed with the local population and adopted the Persian culture and Persian language in the following decades.

Later period

After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language as the official language of the government, and played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition which features "Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language and are regarded as the partial ancestors of the Western Turks – the present-day inhabitants of Azerbaijan (incl. Iranian Azerbaijan), Turkey, and Turkmenistan.

Rulers of the Seljuq Dynasty

The "Great Seljuqs" were heads of the family; in theory their authority extended over all the other Seljuq lines, although in practice this often was not the case. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although usually the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia.

  • Muhammad's son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Ahmad Sanjar, who was the governor of Khurasan at the time being the senior member of the family, became the Great Seljuq Sultan.
  • Seljuq sultans of Hamadan

    The rulers of western Persia, who maintained a very loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkic emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids.

  • Mahmud II 1118–1131
  • 1131-1134 disputed between:
  • Dawud
  • Mas'ud (in Jibal and Iranian Azerbaijan) 1131
  • Toghrul II 1132–1134
  • Mas'ud 1133–1152
  • Malik Shah III 1152–1153
  • Muhammad II
  • Suleiman Shah 1160–1161
  • Arslan Shah 1161–1174
  • Toghrul III 1174–1194
  • In 1194, Tugrul III was killed in battle with the Khwarezm Shah, who annexed Hamadan.

    Seljuq rulers of Kerman

    Kerman was a province in southern Persia. Between 1053 and 1154, the territory also included Umman.

  • Qawurd 1041–1073
  • Kerman Shah 1073–1074
  • Sultan Shah 1074–1075
  • Hussain Omar 1075–1084
  • Turan Shah I 1084–1096
  • Iran Shah 1096–1101
  • Arslan Shah I 1101–1142
  • Mehmed I (Muhammad) 1142–1156
  • Toğrül Shah 1156–1169
  • Bahram Shah 1169–1174
  • Arslan Shah II 1174–1176
  • Turan Shah II 1176–1183
  • Muhammad Shah 1183–1187
  • Muhammad abandoned Kerman, which fell into the hands of the Oghuz chief Malik Dinar. Kerman was eventually annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196.

    Seljuq rulers in Syria

  • Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1085–1086
  • Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I of Great Seljuq 1086–1087
  • Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib 1087–1094
  • Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (second time) 1094–1095
  • Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan 1095–1113
  • Tadj ad-Dawla Alp Arslan al-Akhras 1113–1114
  • Sultan Shah 1114–1123
  • To the Artuqids

    Sultans/Emirs of Damascus:

  • Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi 1076–1079
  • Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1079–1095
  • Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq 1095–1104
  • Tutush II 1104
  • Muhi ad-Din Baqtash 1104
  • Damascus seized by the Burid Toghtekin

    Seljuq sultans of Rum (Anatolia)

    The Seljuq line, already having been deprived of any significant power, effectively ended in the early 14th century.

  • Kutalmish 1060–1077
  • Suleyman I (Suleiman) 1077–1086
  • Dawud Kilij Arslan I 1092–1107
  • Malik Shah 1107–1116
  • Rukn ad-Din Mesud I 1116–1156
  • Izz ad-Din Kilij Arslan II 1156–1192
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1192–1196
  • Suleyman II (Suleiman) 1196–1204
  • Kilij Arslan III 1204–1205
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I (second time) 1205–1211
  • Izz ad-Din Kaykaus I 1211–1220
  • Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I 1220–1237
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246
  • Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260
  • Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265
  • Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1282–1284
  • Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (second time) 1284–1293
  • Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (second time) 1293–1294
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (third time) 1294–1301
  • Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (third time) 1301–1303
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (fourth time) 1303–1307
  • References

    Seljuq dynasty Wikipedia

    Similar Topics