Born in Salford, Hogan began his career as a student at Salford College, studying for a BTEC National Diploma in Sport and playing in college's Football Academy first team, before moving onto the youth academy at League Two side Rochdale in 2009. After just one call into the first team squad, he was released at the end of the 2009–10 season.
Hogan dropped into non-league football to join Northern Premier League Division One North side Woodley Sports in the summer of 2010. He had a prolific spell with the club, scoring 21 goals in 27 league games. He departed the club in November 2010, but immediately returned on loan for a further month.
Hogan signed with Northern Premier League Premier Division side Halifax Town in November 2010, linking up with his brother Liam. He made his debut in a West Riding County Cup second round match against Barnoldswick Town on 15 December, scoring the second goal in a 5–0 victory. On 10 January 2011, Hogan featured in a 3–0 Northern Premier League Cup third round win over Bradford Park Avenue, but his inclusion in the team caused Halifax's expulsion from the competition, having been cup-tied after appearing for Woodley Sports in the competition earlier in the season. Hogan slowly broke into the league squad and the Shaymen finished the 2010–11 season as Northern Premier League Premier Division champions, securing promotion to the Conference North for the 2011–12 season.
In August 2011, Hogan joined Northern Premier League Division One North side Mossley on loan, linking up with his former Woodley Sports manager Gareth McClelland. He made his debut on the opening day of the 2011–12 season, scoring in a 2–1 defeat to Ossett Town and made three further appearances before returning to Halifax. Hogan made his first Halifax appearance of the 2011–12 season on 29 August, coming on as a 77th-minute substitute for Lee Gregory in a 0–0 draw with Boston United. He fell out of favour and made a handful of further appearances before leaving The Shay in late December. He made 22 appearances and scored four goals during just over a year with Halifax.
Hogan signed for Northern Premier League Premier Division side Stocksbridge Park Steels in December 2011. He quickly struck up a strike partnership with Jack Muldoon and made regular appearances for the club. Hogan left the Steels in October 2012, after encountering problems commuting to Stocksbridge from his home in Warrington. He made 16 appearances and scored seven goals during the early months of the 2012–13 season.
In October 2012, Hogan signed for Northern Premier League Premier Division side Ashton United. He scored only one goal in 8 appearances for the club, before departing in March 2013.
On 9 March 2013, Hogan signed a non-contract deal with Conference Premier strugglers Hyde and made his debut that day as a second-half substitute for Louis Almond in a 3–0 defeat to Gateshead. He finished the 2012–13 season with 11 appearances and three goals and left Hyde on 9 May.
On 9 May 2013, Hogan returned to Rochdale, signing a two-year deal. He made his professional debut on 3 August 2013, scoring the first goal of a 3–0 home win against Hartlepool United with a strike that was named as the Sky Sports News Goal of the Day. He began the season in good form, scoring 10 goals in his first 20 league appearances. Hogan scored a goal in Rochdale's shock 2–0 FA Cup victory against Leeds United on 4 January 2014. Four goals in five matches won Hogan the League Two Player of the Month award for February and he celebrated by scoring his second hat-trick in three weeks against Oxford United on 1 March.
He finished the 2013–14 season with 19 goals in 40 appearances to help Rochdale to third place in League Two and automatic promotion to League One. In addition to winning the club's Supporters' Player of the Year award, he won recognition by being voted into the PFA Football League Two Team of the Year and was shortlisted for the League Two Player of the Year award. On 12 July 2014, after reports circulated that Leeds United had had had a bid rejected for Hogan from Rochdale, Leeds put a statement on their official website that they had not made an approach for the player despite media speculation. He left the club in mid-July.
On 21 July 2014, Hogan signed a three-year contract with Championship side Brentford, in a deal reported to be worth approximately £750,000. After missing a portion of the 2014–15 pre-season with an ankle injury, he made his Bees debut on 26 August as a second-half substitute for Nick Proschwitz in a 1–0 defeat to West London rivals Fulham in the second round of the League Cup. Hogan made his league debut for Brentford in the following game against Rotherham United, coming on for Jota after 67 minutes, but suffered an anterior cruciate ligament injury in his left knee on 82 minutes and was immediately substituted. Hogan underwent reconstruction surgery on 10 September and re-injured the same knee in April 2015 after catching his foot in the turf during a passing drill in training. He underwent further surgery on 29 April and later signed a one-year contract extension, which would keep him at Griffin Park until the end of the 2017–18 season.
Hogan finally returned to the pitch with an appearance for the Development Squad against Crystal Palace on 29 February 2016, scoring the opening goal of the 2–2 draw. After two further appearances, he made his return to first team action with a late substitute appearance in a 1–0 defeat to Blackburn Rovers on 19 March. Though he subsequently suffered from a hamstring problem, Hogan soon returned to the team finished the season with seven goals from seven games.
Hogan began the 2016–17 season as an ever-present and got off the mark on his fourth appearance, scoring the only goal of the game versus Nottingham Forest on 16 August 2016. He went on to score 13 goals in a 18-match spell, which included his first Brentford hat-trick (scored in a 5–0 win over Preston North End) and the September 2016 Championship Player of the Month award.
On 31 January 2017, Hogan signed for Aston Villa on a four-and-a-half year contract. He scored his first goal for Villa in a 2-0 win at Wigan Athletic on 18 March 2017.
Hogan was called up to the Republic of Ireland U21 squad in February 2014, but did not feature in a match. Though born in England, he is eligible to play for Ireland through having two Irish grandparents.
Hogan's brother Liam is also a professional footballer and the pair played together at Halifax. Having both studied at Salford College, the brothers returned to take part in the presentations at the 2014 Salford City College Sports Awards.As of match played 2 January 2017.
Rochdale Supporters' Player of the Year: 2013–14
PFA Football League Two Team of the Year: 2013–14
Football League Two Player of the Month: February 2014
Football League Championship Player of the Month: September 2016