|Bay'ah 9 November 1953|
Name Saud Saudi
House House of Saud
Father King Abdulaziz
|Reign 9 November 1953 –
2 November 1964|
Born 15 January 1902 Kuwait City (1902-01-15)
Burial Al-Oud cemetery, Riyadh
Died February 23, 1969, Athens, Greece
Children Basmah bint Saud, Muhammed bin Saud Al Saud
Siblings Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, Faisal of Saudi Arabia
Parents Ibn Saud, Wadha bint Muhammed Al'arai'aer
Similar People Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Khalid of Saudi Arabia, Salman of Saudi Arabia
King Saud At The Circus (1957)
Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (; Arabic: سعود بن عبد العزيز آل سعود Su'ūd ibn 'Abd al-'Azīz Āl Su'ūd; 15 January 1902 – 23 February 1969) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to 1964. After a period of internal tension in Saudi Arabia, he was forced from the throne and replaced by his brother Faisal.
- King Saud At The Circus 1957
- Early life
- National policy
- Foreign relations
- Struggle with Faisal
- Forced abdication
- Personal life
- Death and funeral
Prince Saud was born on 15 January 1902 in Kuwait City. The second son of Ibn Saud (also known as Abdulaziz), he was born in the home of his grandfather Amir Abdul Rahman. They lived in Sikkat Inazza where the family was staying after their exile from Riyadh. When his father conquered Riyadh in 1902, Saud followed him with his mother and brothers.
Prince Saud had one full brother, Turki I. and a sister, Mounira. Their mother was King Abdulaziz's second wife Wadhah bint Muhammad bin 'Hussein Al-Orair, who belonged to the Qahtan tribe.
At the age of five years old, he studied under Sheikh Abdul Rahman Al-Mufaireej. He learned Sharia and Quran. He also learned archery and horse-riding amongst other things under the supervision of his father, also tribal lineages, and how to conduct peace agreements, and the art of wars, politics, diplomacy and administration in the traditional Arabian ways. He accompanied his father on his many expeditions and, participated in several campaigns during the unification of the Arabian Peninsula. In addition, his father would entrust him from time to time with war related or political, administrative and diplomatic missions, where he proved himself in measuring up to his father's aspirations and even at times in surprising him by the outcome of his endeavors. When King' Abdul 'Aziz appointed him as an heir to his throne in (1933), his famous advice to his son was that, he should always be devoted to the service of the cause of the Almighty, and aspire towards raising aloft the voice of Islam and strive hard to look after the concerns and affairs of his subjects, and be truthful in word and deed. He also advised him to incline towards and respect of Muslim scholars and keep their company and listen to their advice. The young (Ameer) Saud had then pledged to his father that he would loyally abide by his words.
Saud's first political mission was at the age of thirteen, he led a delegation to Qatar. The 1st battle he fought was at (Jirrab) on 1915, followed b Yatab battle in the same year, then Trubah battle in 1919. In 1925 he stopped the Almahmal crisis in Makkah. In 1929 he fought to stop the Ikhwan Revolt at Al Sebella.
On 11 May 1933, he was appointed Crown Prince by his father. In 1934, King Abdulaziz sent two military expeditions; one of them was led by Crown Prince Saud who regained Najran and advanced secretly through the rugged mountains in the north west part of Yemen.
Following the end of the war with Yemen, King Abdulaziz decided to encourage Saud to travel abroad. Accompanied by his father’s adviser, Fuad Hamzah and Physician Dr. Medhat Sheikh el-Ard and some others, he visited: Transjordan, Palestine, Iraq, Egypt and Europe where he represented his father at the Coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937. Due to his modesty and amiable and sincere personality, Crown Prince Saud managed to prove a success throughout his visits, striking a warm friendship with the young King Ghazi of Iraq I, and earning plaudits from the likes of the “Amir” and later on “King”, ‘Abdullah I of Jordan & Transjordan, who said to him: "in his character, he represented the choicest and purest of the traits and attributes of the Arabian Peninsula".
When a crisis erupted between the neighbouring Persian Gulf States of Bahrain and Qatar, Saud also visited the former during December 1937 in order to help sort out their differences. This was followed by other visits to the until the eve of the Second World War.
After the war, when the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine appeared to be imminent, and leaders of the various Arab States met at Inshas in Egypt during 1946 in order to review the situation under the Chairmanship of King Farouk of Egypt, Saud was again selected by his father to represent him and his country, and participated in the adoption of the famous resolution that declared that: "The Palestinian cause is the cause of all Arabs and not merely the Palestinians". In 1947, Saud visited the United States and met with President Harry S. Truman, and also met with leaders in Britain, France, and Italy, in order to acquaint the policy makers with his father’s views and the unacceptability of the infringement of the rights of the Palestinians.
Following Amir Saud’s visits, he concentrated on the first areas to be deemed in sore need of modernisation and reform in view of increasing revenues and expenditures, was the body governing and handling the country’s finances. After seeking advice and expert help from a number of friendly countries, primarily the USA, the Saudi riyal was linked to the United States Dollar and apart from structural, regulatory and procedural reforms within a revamped Ministry of Finance; a Central Bank under the name of the “Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency” (“SAMA”) was established during 1952.
In keeping with universal practice, a proper annual state budget had first been issued during 1948 and following the establishment of the above central banking body, “SAMA”, the third Saudi National Budget for the year 1952 complied with internationally observed standards. During this period, technical co-operation, primarily with the, in the guise of the arrival of 35 experts during 1952 and aimed at generating planned economic growth within the Kingdom also received a major boost.
Apart from financial and administrative reforms, the report presented to King Abdulaziz by Amir Saud, had commended the implementation of a whole range of vital infrastructural projects relating to the improvement of facilities for the Pilgrims, so important to the Kingdom from a religious and economic point of view, water supply, roads, broadcasting service, health, municipal affairs, port improvements, customs reorganization and higher education.
Plans for the paved road between Jeddah and Makkah had been announced by Saud during the Hajj of 1947, and the project for bringing water from the nearby Wadi Fatimah to Jeddah was also inaugurated by him shortly during November 1947. The Hajj of 1369 AH / 1950 AD witnessed the establishment of the Makkah college that was later to be expanded and renamed Umm al-Qura University.
Many of these reforms, along with the complete reorganisation of the system of public administration, through the establishment or restructuring of new or existing ministries and departments, and conceived and recognised as the “Crown Prince’s Reforms”, issued from his Office by a Decree under his seal on 19 October 1952, were destined to be developed, built upon and some even implemented after the demise of King Abdulaziz on 9 November 1953 and during Saud’s reign as King. The traditional Consultative Council in Makkah, the "Majlis-ash-Shura" or Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia was expanded on 17 November 1952.
Earlier, on 19 October 1953, King Abdulaziz had also appointed Crown Prince Saud as a Prime Minister for the first Saudi Cabinet. Before that, he appointed him as a Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and Internal Security Units on 25 August 1953. During this period, the Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia, including the Air Force, were modernised on a large scale with American assistance. The Saudi Arabian Airlines fleet was also expanded by the purchase of four new ‘Sky Masters” to primarily facilitate the transport of Pilgrims from their homes to the and back, and also within the Kingdom. On 10 June 1953, Saud with the approval of his father also laid the foundation stone for the expansion and refurbishment of the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah. Earlier on, following a visit, he had recommended to King Abdulaziz the need for the adoption of this step, which the latter had sanctioned.
Saud succeeded his father as King on 9 November 1953. King Saud ascended the throne in a political climate very different from the time when his father King Abdulaziz had returned to his homeland Al-Riyadh and then gone on to establish his Kingdom. Considering the magnitude of the internal and the external challenges faced by King Saud and the background and nature of his training, statistics would prove that he had performed extensively well in laying the solid foundations and providing the requisite infra-structure and frame-work for the country's march towards its goals, without harmfully compromising or losing sight of its pivotal role as the custodian of the two holiest sanctuaries of Islam. Close scrutiny would also reveal that, the handling of the country's financial expenditure during this period, though not entirely consistent with the criteria used by modern-day critics, was conformity with the cherished traditions and desires of the majority of the population inhabiting Saudi Arabia's vast land mass, who happened to be tribal and nomadic. King Saud having had such long years of experience in dealing successfully with his people and understood their wants, desires and their likes and dislikes in the light of the traditions and values they esteemed most.
King Saud had announced to the new Council of Ministers in his very first speech as King, that, while his father’s reign was noted for military conquests, he intended his reign to be “a war on poverty, ignorance and disease with the equitable application of the dictates of the holy ‘Shariah’ laws to all without exception, and the creation of a strong army”. He was to make a sincere attempt throughout his reign, to see to it that, Government policy planned and worked towards the realisation of these goals in the shortest time-span possible, no easy task, particularly given the local and regional circumstances.
In order to cope adequately with the responsibilities of this challenge, and facilitate realistically the implementation of his programme he initially, doubled the number of ministries to ten by adding the portfolios of Education, Agriculture, Health, Commerce and industry, plus two Directorates: Labour and Broadcasting and the Bureau of Public Inspection” in 1955, to the existing ministries of Foreign Affairs, Finance, Interior, Defence, and Communications. In 1953, the decision had already been taken to move the ministries, then located in Jeddah, to Riyadh, the country's official capital. This had called for the construction of suitable new buildings and the provision of adequate housing for employees. This was ignition of the signal for Riyadh’s modernisation and development. Saud’s next brother and heir, HRH Prince Faisal, was appointed Prime Minister, while retaining his former portfolio of Foreign Minister. A five years plan was started, as mentioned in King Saud's first cabinet speech in 1954.
In 1957, King Saud also founded 'King Saud University' in Riyadh.
King Saud played a role of utmost importance on the regional, Arab, Islamic and international levels. His eminent place in the Islamic world and his strength of character qualified him to succeed in many of his endeavors to enforce and strengthen relations. He started his worldwide tours after finishing touring of his country's regions. He visited Arab and friendly countries for strategic and political purposes. He began his tour in 1954 in Egypt, followed by Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Yemen and Pakistan. He announced that his sole purpose was to "unify Muslims all over the world" so they would be like one strong body. King Saud believed in a non-alignment policy, which he discussed thoroughly with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru during an official visit to India. He also strove to keep the region free from coalitions and blocs that only served foreign interests and thus he refused to join the Baghdad Pact. Despite pressure exerted from the West, he approved upon meeting President Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli in Cairo in March 1856 (Rajab 1375 H) of making a joint statement regarding their understanding of security and defense matters, that coincided with other agreements in the financial, economical and development area.
For example, in November 1955 (Rabi I 1375 H), he granted a 16 million dollars loan to Syria for five years. He agreed to exchange products and exempt agricultural products from import export license and custom duties. With the continuous Israeli assault on Jordan in 1955 (1374/1375-H), King Saud invited military leaders of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan to Riyadh in order to discuss procedures to counter the aggression. He agreed to cover all expenses of reinforcing Jordan's National Guard and armed forces. He also adopted and supported the Algerian revolution, diplomatically and financially, when he declared it on the first of November 1954 (Safar 1375 H). King Saud made a statement inviting people to donate money for the revolution; the donations amounted to $1,200,000. The government donated one million dollars of that amount in 1376 H- 1956, and the rest of the donations were granted yearly. King Saud kept granting donations to Algeria and kept defending it until it established its independence in 1962. Imam Ahmad bin Yahya of Yemen joined the Arab endeavors to unify their ranks when he signed the joint defense agreement with Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Syria. This event took place after the Imam's meeting with King Saud, President Gamal Abdel Nasser and President Shukri al-Quwatli in late Shawal (1375H April 21, 1956), following the Jeddah Pact between Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Maintaining his support to the Arab countries after the nationalization of the Suez Canal Company in July 26, 1956 (Thul-Hijja 1375H), although the Egyptian Government did not consult him as it did with Syria in taking that decision contrary to his expectations as a military ally, he supported Egypt in spite of the gravity of the nationalization decision and the repercussions that it could entail. He succeeded also in strengthening his relation with King Faisal II of Iraq after a meeting held in Dammam on September 20, 1956 (Safar 1367 H). It was followed that same month and in the same place by a meeting with President Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli, during which he confirmed his total support for the Egyptian stand in this crisis. When the trilateral aggression on Egypt took place on October 29, 1956 (Rabi I 1376 H) as a result of the nationalization decision, King Saud declared a general mobilization and ordered the opening of enlistment offices. He offered total assistance to the Egyptian government, personally supervising the operations and welcoming Egyptian combat planes in his country for their protection. Among the first to enlist were King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, Prince Fahad bin Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and many other princes. As a means of exerting pressure on the British and French governments, he used a weapon never used before, when he blocked the oil and banned all British and French tankers and other tankers carrying Saudi oil to these two countries. He also broke off relations with Britain and France.
King Saud had used the oil weapon for the first time although he was aware of the possible repercussions of such a procedure on the national economy. He sustained his support after the war so as to remove the aftermath of the aggression. He offered generous contributions, including SR 2 million to the Egyptian Red Crescent to help victims of Port Said.
King Saud was still keen on keeping the region free of political and defense blocs that only support a superpower against another. Despite his solid relations with the American system, on which he relied in several areas because of the oil discovery and production, he seriously thought of canceling the American facilities for using Dhahran airport as a means of exerting pressure on the United States of America and sustaining his direct endeavors to eradicate the aftermath of the action against Egypt.
When the Suez crisis erupted during 1956, though at times taken unawares by Egyptian decision making, which went against the grain of mutual agreements to consult and keep each other informed in advance of vital political steps, Saud had unreservedly placed his Kingdom’s resources at Egypt’s disposal, providing it with financial and strategic help in a number of ways.
As an indication of how seriously King Saud took these deliberations, despite the vital and traditionally intimate ties of his country with the United States of America, and the ingrained alienation of communism and Islamic beliefs, he had refused to join the American sponsored Baghdad Pact of 1955, (later on the Central Treaty Organisation – CENTO), – aimed at opposing the expansion of Communist influence in the region, despite the involvement of the fellow Arab State of Iraq in it, along with Iran, Turkey, Pakistan and Britain. Jordan, which also was keen to join the Pact and Syria as well, had been discouraged from doing so with the aid of political and financial pressure.
These events were among the most important factors that made the American president Dwight D. Eisenhower consider King Saud as a leader on whom he could rely; they had become friends and allies. Eisenhowe invited King Saud to undertake an official visit to the U.S. in (1957- 1377 H) since he believed that King Saud played a crucial role in implementing his doctrine of deterring and fighting communism in the Middle East and the Islamic countries. Once King Saud received the invitation he convened with Presidents Gamal Abdel Nasser and Shukri al-Quwatli in Cairo in (January 1957 - 1377 H). The three leaders agreed to convince President Dwight D. Eisenhower to pressure the Israeli government to evacuate Sharm El Sheikh that overlooks the Gulf of Aqaba and to withdraw to the borders of the previous truce on all frontiers.
He maintained his support to the countries at war with Israel, and signed a ten-year agreement with the Egyptian and Syrian presidents and with King Hussein of Jordan to ease Jordan's financial burdens as a result of the Zionist aggressions. The annual Egyptian and Saudi financial assistance added up to five million Egyptian pounds from each of the two countries. He also discussed with the American President his dispute with Britain over the Buraimi oasis, an oil zone between the frontiers of Saudi Arabia, Oman and Abu Dhabi which was under British protection. The issue of the Buraimi oasis was one of the issues that had been raised since the reign of his father King Abdul Aziz and was still pending. After several clashes, the case went to international arbitration under King Saud. When he accepted the American president's invitation to the United States he received a good welcome, but the Mayor of New York, Robert F. Wagner, Jr., refused to welcome the King because of his national and Islamic politics.
King Saud delivered an important speech during the banquet held by Dag Hammarskjöld, the Swedish UN Secretary General in which he addressed the different aspects of the Arab complaints, in accordance with the UN charter and its powers. He invited all countries to value the charter and implement it in full; he also addressed the outcomes and repercussions of the Cold War. During his negotiations with the American president in Washington on February 2, 1957 (Jamad II 1376 H), the American President explained the principles and objectives of his doctrine, known as the Eisenhower Doctrine, and the effective role that he expected of him as a powerful friend of the United States of America and as an eminent Arab and Muslim leader in fighting the communist movement invading the Middle East and the Islamic countries.
Within this scheme, Dwight D. Eisenhower offered a 25 million dollar loan to the Saudi Government on January 24, 1957 (1376H). In return, King Saud explained that he had refused Soviet Union military aid to fight Britain, and that Britain's policy was what urged the Arabs to seek the Soviet Union's help. He also stressed that non-aligned countries were benefiting from Soviet aid more than the American allied countries were benefiting from American aid. He considered that this aid should double if the American President wished to succeed in his endeavors. King Saud asked Dwight D. Eisenhower to exert pressure on Israel to withdraw from the occupied territories and settle the Palestinian cause, and to convince France to reach a settlement regarding the independence of Algeria. On the other hand, he promised to inform the Arabs of the Eisenhower Doctrine and its purposes; and to inquire about the Arab reaction on the official and officious levels before making any commitments. King Saud explained to the American President that a large bulk of his country's budget was allocated to development projects and to the five-year plan, and that he needed military aid before being able to play any role expected from him in fighting communism. The American government agreed to give him a 250 million dollar loan and all kinds of land, sea and air weaponry, and to train the Saudi army on how to use them.
In return, the American government was granted facilities to use Dhahran airport for five years, after which it would be returned decisively with all its equipment to the Saudi Government in 1962 (1381 H).
The outcome of King Saud's efforts deployed during this utterly important visit to ensure the best interests of his country were positive. Before briefing his Arab peers about the results of this visit and the Eisenhower Doctrine, King Saud visited Spain, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya and informed them of these results. In February 1957 (Rajab 1376 H) he met leaders of Egypt, Syria and Jordan in Cairo and informed them of Dwight D. Eisenhower's objectives. Under the influence of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli, King Saud, wanting to support the unanimous Arab stand, decided to back up the Egyptian and Syrian Presidents in their decision not contribute in the Eisenhower Doctrine. King Saud's endeavors and sacrifices to unite Arabs and defend their causes were some of the matters to which he devoted his undivided attention. But the negative results of the Great Nations policies, the Cold War, and the selfishness of some Arab leaders, hindered the outcomes he was hoping for and dreaming of and to which he made so many sacrifices.
The Great Nations policies and interferences ended up in breaking up and dividing Arabs into two major blocs. That resulted in the outburst of new conflicts where each bloc started representing a Great Nation or a political bloc backing it. When the Republic of Iraq decided to annex Kuwait in 1961 (1381 H) under Abd al-Karim Qasim, King Saud rushed to protect Kuwait and its territories by protesting in international forums. Remaining true and faithful to the close relationship between the House of Sabah and the House of Saud, he strived for securing Kuwait's borders by declaring: "any action against Kuwait is an action against Saudi Arabia". This was one of his values and approaches regarding his foreign policy. The Saudi politics, up to date, followed the same approach in defending Arab countries' rights.
Struggle with Faisal
A fierce struggle between Ibn Saud's most senior sons, Saud and Faisal, erupted immediately after his death. The increase in oil revenues did not solve the financial problem associated with the debts Saud had inherited from his father, estimated to have been $US200 million in 1953. In fact, this debt more than doubled by 1958, when it reached $US450 million. The Saudi Riyal lost half of its official value against the United States Dollar. Both ARAMCO and international banks declined Saudi's demand for credit. Saud suspended the few government projects he had initiated, but continued his spending on luxurious palaces.
Saud and Faisal fought an internal battle over the definition of political responsibilities and the division of government functions. Saud is often associated among other things with plundering of oil revenues, luxurious palaces, and conspiracy inside and outside of Saudi Arabia while Faisal is associated with sobriety, piety, puritanism, financial wisdom, and modernization. Moreover, the conflict between the two brothers is often described as originating from the desire of Faisal to curb his brother's spending and solve Saudi Arabia's financial crisis.
The battle between the two brothers was fought over the role to be assigned to the Council of Ministers. Saud abolished the office of Prime Minister by royal decree, thus enforcing his position as King and de facto prime minister. Saud thought of himself as both King and prime minister whereas Faisal envisaged more powers being in his own hand as Crown Prince and deputy prime minister.
King Saud's family members worried about Saud's profligacy and his inability to meet Nasser's socialist challenge. Corruption and backwardness were weakening the regime. Radio Cairo's anti-Saudi propaganda was finding a receptive audience.
King Saud and Prince Faisal continued their power struggle until 1962, when Prince Faisal formed a cabinet in the absence of the King, who had gone abroad for medical treatment. Prince Faisal allied with Prince Fahd and Prince Sultan. Prince Faisal's new government excluded the sons of Saud. He promised a ten-point reform that included the drafting of a basic law, the abolition of slavery and the establishment of a judicial council.
King Saud rejected Prince Faisal's new arrangement and threatened to mobilize the Royal Guard against his brother. Prince Faisal ordered the mobilization of the National Guard against King Saud. With the arbitration of the ulema and pressure from senior royalty, King Saud yielded and agreed to abdicate on 28 March 1964.
King Saud was forced into exile in Geneva, Switzerland, and then on to other European cities. In 1966, Saud was invited by Nasser to live in Egypt; another report claims that King Saud went to Egypt under refuge granted by Nasser and stayed there from 1965 to 1967. King Saud was also allowed to broadcast propaganda on Radio Cairo. Some of his sons, such as Prince Khalid, Prince Badr, Prince Sultan and Prince Mansur, joined him and supported his attempt to regain the throne. However, after the June 1967 Arab-Israel War, he lost the support of Egypt and settled in Greece until his death in 1969.
Saud had 115 children and multiple wives. The family tree section in King Saud Foundation Website contains the names of the wives, children and grand children of Saud. Only a few of his children have a public role.
His eldest son Fahad bin Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, was minister of defence. His youngest child is Basmah bint Saud, who currently lives in Acton, London. His third son, Muhammed was sometime governor of Al Bahah Province, and died on 8 July 2012. Prince Mishari, replaced his elder brother as Al Bahah governor with the rank of minister in August 2010.
Another son, Mishaal, was the governor of Najran Province from 1996 to November 2008. His son Abdul Rahman (1946–2004) was a supporter of Al Nassr FC. One son, Badr bin Saud (1934–2004), was governor of Riyadh during his father's reign, while another son, Hussam bin Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, is a businessman.
One of his daughters, called Hajer, died outside the Kingdom following an illness on 17 November 2011. Her funeral prayer was performed at Imam Turki bin Abdullah Mosque in Riyadh after Asr prayer. Another daughter, Noura, was the mother of the former deputy defense minister Fahd bin Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Saud and died in late July 2013. Another daughter, Hessah, was the first Saudi woman to become the principal of a school.
His daughter Fahda born (1951) is an artist.
In 2001, his daughter Buniah (born 1960) was arrested and charged with assaulting her maid in Florida. She was held for one night in prison and was released on bail of $5,000 and ordered to surrender her passport.
After the death of his elder brother Turki, Saud married his wife, Muneera bint Obaid; their daughter, Al Anoud, died in January 2006 aged 83 and was buried in Mecca.
He was described as "although not as large as his illustrious father, King Saud is about six feet two inches in height and weighs well over two hundred pounds. Like his father, he has weak eyes, but he has also inherited Ibn Saud's magnetic smile and a keen sense of humor, which wins him many friends."
Death and funeral
King Saud died at the age 67 years in Dhul-Hijja 6, 1388H, Corresponding to January 24, 1969 in Athens. His remains were returned to his country and the funeral ceremony took place at the Holy Mosque. He was buried next to his father's and grandfathers' graves in "Al Oud" Cemetery in Riyadh.
During his reign, King Saud was the recipient of many honours and these included the Orders of Various other nations. In the formal portraits of King Saud in ceremonial uniform he is wearing the breast stars of the following Orders.
In the central display case the following Orders are on display:
It was during King Saud‘s reign that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia instituted, either in 1954 or 1955, its own series of Orders, decorations, and medals. This series of Awards consisted of the following :