San Fernando, officially the City of San Fernando (Ilocano: Siudad ti San Fernando), is a 3rd class component city in the province of La Union, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 121,812 people.
The city is bounded by San Juan to the north, Bauang to the south, Bagulin and Naguilian to the east, and the South China Sea to the west. It has a land area of 10,272 hectares (25,380 acres).
San Fernando is the financial, industrial and political center of the province, as well as the center of the official Ilocos Region, or Region I in the regions of the Philippines. (Informally Ilocos includes those areas that speak the Ilocano language outside of the official Ilocos Region.)
San Fernando became a city by virtue of Republic Act 8509 signed into law on February 13, 1998 and ratified on March 20, 1998 by a plebiscite.
San Fernando was founded in 1786 and was named after Saint Ferdinand III of Castile. The city's original settlements, San Vicente de Balanac and San Guillermo de Dalangdang, were attacked by pirates and headhunters.
In 1759, Augustinian friar, Padre José Torres fused these 2 settlements to Pindangan (local word for a place to dry fish), where a church dedicated to San Guillermo the Hermit was. This church is now the Cathedral of St. William the Hermit. The massive 1860's earthquake destroyed the church which was later rebuilt.
It became the cabecera or provincial capital of La Union province in 1850.
From 1896 until 1898, during the Philippine Revolution, the Spanish garrison of San Fernando was attacked by Filipino insurgents under Manuel Tinio y Bundoc and Mauro Ortiz. The Spaniards were finally ousted.
In the Second World War, the last battle of San Fernando was fought during the Japanese occupation at Barangay Bacsil. The Bacsil Ridge Monument was built on the site in the city, the north-eastern portion of the town plaza. The victory enabled the establishment of the United States Army Base, Base M at Poro Point (a buildup area for the Japan invasion). The town was liberated in 1945.
In the 2015 census, the population of San Fernando, La Union, was 121,812 people, with a density of 1,200 inhabitants per square kilometre or 3,100 inhabitants per square mile.
San Fernando is mainly agricultural (rice, legumes, leafy vegetables, root crops, fruit trees, corn and tobacco). But residents treat fishing in coastline and seashore areas as secondary means of livelihood. The natives also have inabel (hand-woven cloth), baskets, shell crafts, including foods, such as kilawen and papaitan, basi, sukang iloko and paslubong such as guapples, longganiza, honey and native rice cakes, puto, suman and bibingka.
Patopat is San Fernando's native delicacy, made from "agdapil" (sugarcane, a tall tropical Southeast Asian Grass (Saccharum officinarum).
San Fernando has many class A hotels and resorts and night clubs.
The mayor and other elected officers hold office at the city hall of San Fernando. The Sangguniang Bayan is legislature, stationed in the Don Mariano Marcos Building, the Legislative Building in front of the city hall.
San Fernando is divided into 59 barangays.
Elected officials (June 30, 2016 – 2019):Mayor: Hermenegildo A. Gualberto
Vice Mayor: Alfred Pablo R. Ortega
Maria Rosario Eufrosina Nisce
Ramon Melecio Gurion
Francisco Paolo Ortega
The city has a yearly fiesta, celebrated from January 28 to February 15, where a trade fair is opened near the city hall.
The following events happen annually: Annual City Fiesta, February 10; Bacsil Ridge Celebration, March 19; Pindangan Festival, March 20; Ma-tzu Festival, September 16.Poro Point
Poro Point Special Economic and Freeport Zone  (formerly American Military Base – Wallace Air Station)
The La Union Botanical Garden (8 kilometers from the city) – is a 10 hectare garden (Barngay Cadaclan), the home of various species of rare plants and a sanctuary of wild animals.
Battle of Bacsil Ridge Marker
Pindangan Ruins (Barangay Parian)
Capitol Hill (Barangay II) home of the Provincial Capitol
Pagoda Hill also known as Filipino-Chinese Friendship Park or Chinese Pagoda (Barangay II)
Heroes’ Hill & Freedom Park Stairway (153 steps) located at the eastern portion of Capitol Hill
Bethany Hill (Barangay II)
Mirador Hill (Barangay II)
Mariner's Hill (Barangay Catbangen)
Miracle Hill (Barangay Pagdaraoan)
Christ the Redeemer (25 foot statue, Reservoir Hill, Barangay I)
Moro Watch Tower (Barangay Carlatan)
La Union Science Centrum & Museum (LUSCM has 5 Galleries: Kadaklan Burial Site and Environmental Gallery, Museum, Dark Room, Main Science Gallery and Portable Planetarium (Barangay Cadaclan)
Tomb of Unknown Soldier (Barangay Madayegdeg)
Cathedral of St. William the Hermit (Barangay II, Poblacion)
Kasay Marine Sanctuary: 30 hectares MPA, featuring the 50 years old Giant clam or Tridacna gigas (Barangay Canaoay)
Children’s Park (Barangay II, City Plaza)
10.6 hectares Engineered Sanitary Landfill (Barangay Mameltac)
La Union Trade Center (beside the City Hall)