Carole started his playing career in 2002 with AS Monaco, where he had been since he was 14 years old. In February 2004 he joined English Premier League side West Ham United on loan. However, in three months with the Hammers he made just one substitute appearance. He spent the 2004–05 season on loan at Ligue 2 club Châteauroux, making nine league appearances and scoring one goal.
In total Carole made nine league appearances scoring one goal in his three years with Monaco. He also played for Monaco in the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup. He was part of the Monaco squad which reached the Champions League final in 2004 but did not have any involvement in the 3–0 final loss to FC Porto.
On 12 August 2005 Carole signed a two-year contract with English Championship side Brighton & Hove Albion for an undisclosed fee. He played 42 games in total for Brighton in the 2005–06 season as they finished bottom in the Championship and were relegated to League One. In June he activated a relegation release clause in his contract and Albion confirmed that Carole was to join Leeds United and Carole joined them on 23 June
Carole signed a three-year deal with Leeds, joining them on 5 July 2006. he featured in many games under previous manager Kevin Blackwell but found first-team opportunities under Dennis Wise difficult. In November 2006 the Yorkshire Evening Post claimed that Wise was about to release Carole. He made a total of 18 appearances in the 2006–07 season.
In 2007–08 he made 34 appearances and scored his first goal for the club on 29 November 2007 in a 1–1 draw with Gillingham. In 2008 pre-season he played in a friendly against York City, which proved to be his last appearance for Leeds United. After failing to feature in manager Gary McAllister's plans he was released from his contract by mutual consent on 1 September 2008. He played a total of 52 games in his three years with the club, scoring three goals.
Following his release from Leeds he had trials with Valencia CF and Atletico Madrid.
After a short trial with Bradford City Carole joined League Two side Darlington on a short term contract on 28 November 2008. He played seven games with Darlington during a two-month stay, before leaving the club in January 2009.
On 29 January 2009, after a successful trial Carole re-joined League One side Brighton & Hove Albion until the end of the 2008–09 season. He made 12 appearances and on 12 May Brighton announced that they would be releasing Carole when his contract expired at the end of June 2009.
Carole joined Tranmere Rovers on a short-term contract until January 2010.
On 31 December 2009, Carole returned to Brighton on trial, who are now managed by former Leeds United assistant manager Gus Poyet where Carole had a regular spell in team under the management of Dennis Wise and Poyet. On 11 January 2010, it was confirmed that Carole had agreed a weekly contract with Brighton & Hove Albion. He left Brighton after his pre-season offer did not work.
Carole joined OGC Nice in Ligue 1 the top division in France in November 2010.
Carole joined Harrogate and District Sunday League side Burton Leonard Squirrel in November 2011, scoring on his debut for the club.
Sebastien Carole played in the BARIS Northern Counties East League for Knaresborough Town.
Bury signed Carole on non-contract terms on 26 November 2012 after he impressed manager Kevin Blackwell whilst on trial at the club.
Guiseley signed Carole on 26 March 2013. In his debut against Gainsborough he came of the bench and scored helping Guiseley win 2–1. Seb also got an assist. He started the next game in a 2–0 win over Workington.
Carole joined Bradford Park Avenue A.F.C. as a free signing on 7 August 2015 after being on trial at the club.
Carole has represented France at every level up to under-19.
In 2010 Martinique selected Carole to play in the Didgicel Cup held in the Caribbean, he played in three games.