Ranisankail is one of the ancient area of Bengal. It is in the North-east corner of Bangladesh. Its total area of 287.59 km². It is about 480 km from Dhaka, the capital City of Bangladesh. It is bordered by Baliadangi upazila to the north, Pirganj upazila to the east, Haripur uapazila to the west, and India on its south side. The main rivers are Kulic, Nagar, and Timai. Land use total: cultivable land, 22405.09 hectares; fallow land, 6115.74; single crop, 30%, double crop, 55%; and treble crop 15%; cultivable land under irrigation, 69%.
At the 1991 Bangladesh census, Ranisankail had a population of 156107. Males constitute 51.67% of the population and females 48.33%. The number of adults was 76,136. Ranisankail had an average literacy rate of 25.7% (7+ years), below the national average of 32.4%.
Ranisankail (Town) consists of five mouzas. The area of the town is 13.94 km2. The town has a population of 13521; male 52.09%, female 47.91%; population density per km2 970. Literacy rate among the town people is 36.9%.
Population 156107; male 51.67%, female 48.33%. Muslim 76.23%, Hindu 22.79%, Christian 0.30% and others 0.98%; ethnic nationals: Santal 537 families. Main occupations Agriculture 53.7%, agricultural laborer 28.52%, wage laborer 2.59%, commerce 6.41%, service 2.41% and others 6.37%.
Land control - Among the peasants, 3.43% are landless, 14.01% marginal, 12.78% small, 64.59% intermediate and 5.19% rich; cultivable land per head 0.13 hectare.
Ranisankail is not only famous for its natural beauty, but also for its ancient historical places. They are as follows: Khunia Dighi Memorial, Palace of King Tonko Nath, Ramrai Dighi (a pond covering 50 acres), Nekmord Oras mela (Fair of Nekmardon),Nekamard Hazrat Shah Nasiruddin (R) Mazar. Nekmarad Hat. Katihar Hat in Razore village (famous for Hindu shib mondir, Rash mela, Extinct Maghi Mela), Kulic river, Gorkoi Nath mondir (Temple-900 Years old), Dharmagar, Banglagar, Shidassory Pond(sida Digi, Bhandagram), Ranisonkail Pilot High School, Ancient Primary School (100 years old)Rautnagar hat etc.
Ranisankail has 9 Unions/Wards, 124 Mauzas/Mahallas, and 122 villages.Chairman: Md. Ainul Haque Master
Vice Chairman: Md. Mizanur Rahaman Master
Woman Vice Chairman: Most. Selina jahan Lita
Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO): খান্দাকার নাহিদ হাসান
There are some highway bus services from Dhaka to Ranisankail run by companies such as AB Enterprise, Bablu Enterprise,Hanif,Rozina,Shymoli,Rahbar,AK Travels, Keya Poribahan etc. Most of them go from Shamoly, Asadgate, Gabtoli of dhaka. It takes 9–10 hours. Those buses go through Bangabandhu Jamuna bridge on the Dhaka to Thakurgaon high way road.