Jupiter Pictures partner Somu asked A. S. A. Sami to create a screenplay that he himself could direct with artistes on the payroll of the company. However, when he read Sami's screenplay, he suggested that P. U. Chinnappa and T. R. Rajakumari, who were in the forefront at that time, play the lead roles. But Sami requested Somu to stick to the original decision. M. G. Ramachandran was on Jupiter's payroll. His looks were handsome and he had an athletic body. Also, the Siva-Parvathi dance he performed with K. Malathi in Jupiter's 1946 production Sri Murugan was impressive. MGR and Malathi were asked to play the lead roles. After more than half the film was shot, the company's other partner S. K. Mohideen felt the project be abandoned. Somu weighed the consequences in the light of future career of Sami and MGR. He told his partner that a decision could be taken on completion of the film. "Rajakumari" was MGR's 15th film and first film as leading actor. Director of this film, ASA Samy arranged a wrestler called Kamaludeen to participate in a fight sequence for the film. But MGR insisted to have Sandow M. M. A. Chinnappa Thevar who had been acting in small roles to do the role. At first director was not interested to have him in the film, but later agreed.
Music was composed by S. M. Subbaiah Naidu while the lyrics were penned by Udumalai Narayana Kavi.
K. Thavamani Devi who was a talented dancer and singer played the role of a vamp. At one point she came for shooting wearing a dress with a plunging neckline (something unseen those days). It caused ripples on the set.
Rajakumari turned out to be a commercial success with huge profits. In 2008, film historian Randor Guy said it would be "Remembered for: the debut of M. G. Ramachandran as hero and A. S. A. Sami as director.