Siddhesh Joshi (Editor)

Prince Leopold of Bavaria

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Religion  Roman Catholicism
House  House of Wittelsbach
Role  B. 1943
Name  Prince of

Prince Leopold of Bavaria httpsmediapoolbmwgroupcomdownloadedownpres
Born  9 February 1846 Munich, Bavaria (1846-02-09)
Died  28 September 1930(1930-09-28) (aged 84) Munich, Bavaria
Burial  St. Michael's Church, Munich
Issue  Princess Elisabeth Princess Auguste Prince Georg Prince Konrad
Father  Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria
Mother  Archduchess Augusta of Austria
Spouse  Ursula Mohlenkamp (m. 1977)
Parents  Princess Maria Adelgunde Alice Luise Josephine of Hohenzollern, Prince Konstantin of Bavaria
Siblings  Prince Adalbert of Bavaria
Similar People  Prince Konstantin of Bavaria, Prince Adalbert of Bavaria, Prince Johann Georg of, Prince Ferfried of Hohenzollern, Prince Carl Christian of Hohenzollern

Children  Prince Manuel of Bavaria

Bmw m1 procar at nurburgring gp driven by prince leopold of bavaria

Leopold Maximilian Joseph Maria Arnulf, Prinz von Bayern (9 February 1846 – 28 September 1930) was born in Munich, the son of Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria (1821–1912) and his wife Archduchess Augusta of Austria (1825–1864). He was a Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) who commanded German and Austro-Hungarian forces on the Eastern Front in World War I.


Military career

Prince Leopold entered the Bavarian Army at the age of 15, and received his patent as a lieutenant dated 28 November 1861. He saw first combat during the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, where he commanded an artillery battery at Kissingen and Rossbrunn.

In 1870, King Ludwig II of Bavaria sent Leopold to the battlefields of France, where the Bavarian Army was fighting alongside the Prussian Army in the Franco-Prussian War. He served with the 3rd Bavarian Artillery Regiment and saw action at Sedan and Beauvert. He was promoted to major in December 1870. For his bravery against the enemy he received both the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd Classes, the Bavarian Military Merit Order Knight 1st Class, the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph, Bavaria's highest military decoration, and decorations from several other German states.

In the post-war years, Prince Leopold spent most of his time travelling, visiting Africa, Asia and countries of Europe. In 1911 he ordered a 6m racing yacht "Ralle II" from the great British yacht designer Alfred Mylne, built at the Rambeck yard on Lake Starnberg. He was married on 20 April 1873 at Vienna to his second cousin Archduchess Gisela of Austria, daughter of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria and the Empress Elisabeth. He remained in the Bavarian army and was finally promoted to the rank of field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) on 1 January 1905. He retired from active duty in 1913.

First World War

Prince Leopold's retirement, however, did not last long. On 16 April 1915, he was given command of the German 9th Army, replacing General August von Mackensen. Leopold quickly proved himself an able commander as he took Warsaw on 4 August 1915. Following this success, he was put in command of Army Group Prince Leopold of Bavaria (Heeresgruppe Prinz Leopold von Bayern), which was a German force in the central/northern sector of the Eastern Front. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph on 5 August 1915, the prestigious Pour le Mérite, Prussia's highest military decoration, on 9 August 1915 and the oak leaves to the Pour le Mérite on 25 July 1917.

On 29 August 1916, after the brutal summer campaigns succeeded in reversing the Brusilov Offensive against the Austrians, Leopold became the Supreme Commander of the German forces on the Eastern front (Oberbefehlshaber Ost), succeeding Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg. Leopold held this post for the rest of the war. Because of his position, Leopold was a potential German candidate for the throne of the puppet Kingdom of Poland.

On 4 March 1918, Leopold received yet another high honor, the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, awarded only five times during World War I.

Prince Leopold retired again in 1918 after the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which had ended the war on the Eastern Front. This treaty was highly favorable to Germany, and Leopold ended his career with success. He died on 28 September 1930 in Munich and is buried in the Colombarium in the Michaelskirche in Munich .

Military ranks

  • Sekondlieutenant: 28 November 1861
  • Premierlieutenant: 5 June 1864
  • Hauptmann: 28 April 1867
  • Major: 11 December 1870
  • Oberstlieutenant: 27 March 1871
  • Oberst: 18 February 1873
  • Generalmajor: 1 November 1875
  • Generalleutnant: 16 June 1881
  • General der Kavallerie: 2 March 1887
  • Generaloberst: 9 February 1896
  • Generalfeldmarschall: 1 January 1905
  • Family

    Prince Leopold and his wife Gisela had four children:

  • Princess Elisabeth Marie of Bavaria (1874–1957), who married Otto Ludwig Philipp Graf von Seefried auf Buttenheim
  • Princess Auguste Maria of Bavaria (1875–1964), who married Archduke Joseph August of Austria
  • Prince Georg of Bavaria (1880–1943), married Archduchess Isabella of Austria
  • Prince Konrad of Bavaria (1883–1969), who married Princess Bona Margherita of Savoy-Genoa
  • Greek succession

    Leopold is also, according to the provisions of 1843 Greek Constitution, the heir of the deposed King Otto of Greece. Due to the renunciation by his elder brother Ludwig of all his rights to the Greek succession and since the Greek Constitution forbade the sovereign to be ruler of another country (Ludwig became King of Bavaria), Leopold technically succeeded upon his brother's renunciation to the rights of the deposed Otto I, King of Greece. At Leopold's death his rights were inherited by his son Georg.

    Decorations and honors


  • House Order of Saint Hubertus
  • Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception, Second Grand Prior of the order
  • Military Order of Max Joseph, Knight's Cross (1871) and Grand Cross (1915)
  • Military Merit Order, Grand Cross with Swords
  • St. George Medal
  • Ludwig Order, Honor Cross
  • Jubilee Medal with Crown
  • 1866 Army Commemorative Cross
  •  Prussia

  • Order of the Black Eagle
  • Order of the Red Eagle, Grand Cross with Swords
  • Pour le Mérite with oakleaves
  • 1914 Grand Cross of the Iron Cross
  • 1870 Iron Cross 1st Class
  • 1870 Iron Cross 2nd Class
  • Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Grand Commander
  • War Commemorative Medal of 1870/71
  • Centenary Medal
  • Officers' Long Service Cross
  • Red Cross Medal, 1st class with War Decoration
  • Other German states

  • Anhalt: Order of Albert the Bear, Grand Cross
  • Baden: House Order of Fidelity, Knight Grand Cross
  • Baden: Order of Berthold the First, Grand Cross
  •  Bremen: Hanseatic Cross
  • Brunswick: House Order of Henry the Lion, Grand Cross
  • Brunswick: War Merit Cross
  •  Hamburg: Hanseatic Cross
  • Hesse-Darmstadt: Ludewig Order, Knight Grand Cross
  • Hesse-Darmstadt: Military Merit Cross 1870/71
  • Hohenzollern: Princely House Order of Hohenzollern, Honor Cross 1st Class
  • Lippe-Detmold: War Honor Cross for Heroic Deeds
  • Lippe-Detmold: War Merit Cross
  •  Lübeck: Hanseatic Cross
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz: House Order of the Wendish Crown, Grand Cross with Crown
  • Mecklenburg-Schwerin: 1870 Military Merit Cross
  • Saxony: Order of the Rue Crown
  • Saxony: Military Order of St. Henry, Commander 1st Class
  • Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: House Order of Vigilance or the White Falcon, Grand Cross
  • Duchies of  Saxe-Altenburg,  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and  Saxe-Meiningen: Ducal Saxe-Ernestine House Order, Grand Cross
  •  Schaumburg-Lippe: 1870 Military Merit Medal
  • Württemberg: Order of the Crown (Württemberg), Grand Cross
  • Other countries

  •  Austria-Hungary: Order of the Golden Fleece
  •  Austria-Hungary: Royal Hungarian Order of St. Stephen, Grand Cross
  •  Austria-Hungary: Military Merit Cross, 1st Class with War Decoration
  •  Austria-Hungary: Large Military Merit Medal ("Signum Laudis")
  •  Austria-Hungary: Red Cross Decoration 1st Class with War Decoration
  •  Austria-Hungary: 1898 Franz Joseph I Jubilee Medal
  •  Austria-Hungary: 1908 Franz Joseph I Jubilee Cross in Gold
  •  Austria-Hungary: 1908 Franz Joseph I Military Jubilee Cross
  •  Belgium: Order of Leopold (Belgium), Grand Cordon
  •  Great Britain: Royal Victorian Order, Grand Cross
  • Italy: Order of the Annunziata
  •  Luxembourg: Order of the Golden Lion of Nassau, Knight Grand Cross
  • Montenegro: Order of Prince Danilo I, Grand Cross
  •  Ottoman Empire: Imtiaz Medal in Gold with Swords
  •  Ottoman Empire: Nichan Iftikhar, Knight Grand Commander
  •  Ottoman Empire: Turkish War Medal (so-called "Gallipoli Star")
  • Portugal: Order of the Tower and Sword, Grand Cross
  • Romania: Order of the Star of Romania, Grand Cross
  • Serbia: Order of the White Eagle, Grand Cross
  • Serbia: Order of the Cross of Takovo, Grand Cross
  •  Spain: Order of Charles III, Grand Cross
  • The orders above which were from Allied nations were awarded prior to World War I.


    Prince Leopold of Bavaria Wikipedia