Premna, Verbenaceae, Premna microphylla, Vascular plant, Premna obtusifolia
Premna serratifolia verbenacease family cay la cach
Premna serratifolia (Sanskrit : Agnimantha, अग्निमंथ; Marathi and Malayalam :Arani, अरणी, Tagalog : Alagaw, Palauan : Chosm) is a small tree/shrub in the Verbenaceae family. It flowers and fruits between May and November. During flowering season, it attracts a large number of butterflies and bees. Synonyms of Premna serratifolia Linn. include P. corymbosa (Burm. f.) Merr., P. integrifolia L. and P. obtusifolia R. Br.).
It mostly grow in moist sandy soil and scrub jungles along seacoasts and mangrove forests
Trees, to 7 m high. Leaves simple, opposite, estipulate; petiole 4–14 mm, slender, pubescent, grooved above; lamina 2.5-8.5 x 2-7.2 cm, elliptic, elliptic-oblong, base acute, obtuse, subcordate or rounded, apex acuminate, mucronate, obtuse, margin entire or subserrate, glabrous above except along the appressed midrib, chartaceous; lateral nerves 3-5 pair, pinnate, prominent, puberulous beneath; intercostae reticulate, obscure. Flowers bisexual, greenish-white, in terminal corymbose panicled cymes; bracts small; calyx small campanulate, 2 lipped, 5 lobed; corolla tube short, villous inside, lobes 5; stamens 4, didynamous, inserted below the throat of the corolla tube; anther ovate; ovary superior, 2-4-celled, ovules 4; style linear; stigma shortly bifid. Fruit a drupe, seated on the calyx, globose, purple; seeds oblong.
The plant is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine. Studies on the root wood of P. serattifolia led to the isolation of acteoside, a glucoside derivative. The root bark of the plant which showed biological activities have also shown to contain a potent cytotoxic and antioxidant diterpene, 11,12,16-trihydroxy-2-oxo-5-methyl-10-demethyl-abieta-1,6, 8,11,13-pentene.