French Guiana is not a separate territory but is both an overseas région and overseas department of France, with the same government institutions as areas on the French mainland. The administrative center is Cayenne.
The President of France appoints a prefect (resident at the prefecture building in Cayenne) as his representative to head the local government of French Guiana. There are two local executive bodies: the 19‑member general council and the 34‑member regional council, both elected. They will soon be reunited into a single council, since they have authority on exactly the same territory.
In 2014 the prefect is Éric Spitz. The President of the general council is Alain Tien-Liong and the President of the Regional Council is Rodolphe Alexandre.
Politics of French Guiana Wikipedia
Politics in French Guiana are dominated by the Guianese Socialist Party, which has a close association with the Socialist Party in mainland France.
A chronic issue affecting French Guiana is the influx of illegal immigrants and clandestine gold prospectors from Brazil and Suriname. The border between the department and Suriname is formed by the Maroni River, which flows through rain forest and is difficult for the Gendarmerie and the French Foreign Legion to patrol.
There have been several phases launched by the French government to combat illegal gold mining in French Guiana, beginning with Operation Anaconda beginning in 2003, followed by Operation Harpie in 2008, 2009 and Operation Harpie Reinforce in 2010. Colonel François Müller, the commander of French Guiana's gendarme, believes these operations have been successful. However, after each operation ends, Brazilian miners, garimpeiros, return. Soon after Operation Harpie Reinforce began, an altercation took place between French authorities and Brazilian miners. On March 12, 2010, a team of French soldiers and border police were attacked while returning from a successful operation, during which "the soldiers had arrested 15 miners, confiscated three boats, and seized 617 grams of gold... currently worth about $22,317". Garimpeiros returned to retrieve the lost loot and colleagues. "The soldiers fired warning shots and rubber "flash balls" but the miners managed to retake one of their boats and about 500 grammes of gold. "The violent reaction by the garimpeiros can be explained by the exceptional take of 617 grammes of gold, about 20 percent of the quantity seized in 2009 during the battle against illegal mining", said Phillipe Duporge, the director of French Guiana's border police, at a press conference the next day."
The General Council of French Guiana is the deliberative executive assembly and is composed of 19 members who are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms. It is led by the President of the General Council of French Guiana.
The Regional Council of French Guiana is the elected assembly or regional council and is composed of 31 members who are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms.
Guiana elects two Senators to the French Senate. Both of the current Senators, Georges Patient and Jean-Étienne Antoinette, are members of the Guianese Socialist Party
Guiana also elects two deputies to the French National Assembly. The last elections were held in June 2007. The Walwari has one deputy, Christiane Taubira, and the PSG has one deputy, Chantal Berthelot, who defeated long-time UMP incumbent Léon Bertrand.