| Cyphophthalmi, Stylocellidae, Harvestmen, Sironidae, Neogoveidae|
The Pettalidae are a family of harvestmen with 52 described species and subspecies in eleven genera. Several undescribed species are known or assumed in some genera.
Pettalus is a name from Greek mythology that appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses.
All species except the cave-dwelling South African Speleosiro argasiformis spend their entire life cycle in leaf litter.
They are two to five millimeters long, usually with an oval shaped body.
Although all Pettalidae except Parapurcellia have eyes, these were long thought to be absent in the family, mainly because they cannot be seen by Scanning Electron Microscopy. They are often incorporated at the base of the ozophores and typically lack lenses.
The members of this family are distributed throughout former temperate Gondwana, with genera in Chile, South Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, eastern and western Australia, and New Zealand, where they are most diverse by far, with 29 species and subspecies found in three genera.
The family Pettalidae is monophyletic, although it is at the moment (2007) unclear what the nearest relatives are. It probably originated in the southern part of Gondwana. Parsimony analysis suggests it could be a sister group to the remaining Cyphophthalmi, though this could also be the case for the Stylocellidae, or it could be related to the Sironidae, or specifically to the sironid genus Suzukielus. It is unrelated to the Troglosironidae that are endemic to New Caledonia.
The main lineages of the family may have arisen rapidly, possibly during the rapid expansion of Glossopteris forests that were predominant in temperate Gondwana. Pettalidae were likely present throughout the forests of Antarctica, which formed a land bridge between Australia and South America up until circa 50 million years ago (mya).
The Australian genera Austropurcellia (Eastern Australia: Queensland) and Karripurcellia (Western Australia) are not sister groups. It is possible that the Cyphophthalmi dispersed across Australia while the central region was covered with Nothofagus rainforest (until 37 mya), or that the ancestors of the two genera independently dispersed from adjacent landmasses now separate from Australia.
Parapurcellia from eastern South Africa is sister to all other Pettalidae, while Purcellia from western South Africa is sister to the Chilean Chileogovea. Western South Africa and southern South America were last connected during the Late Jurassic, about 150 mya. Likewise, the monotypic Neopurcellia from New Zealand appears as the sister group to all Pettalidae except for Parapurcellia, instead of being monophyletic with the other two New Zealand genera, which themselves appear as sister groups in Bayesian analysis, but not in direct optimization parsimony analyses.Aoraki Boyer & Giribet, 2007 (New Zealand)
Aoraki calcarobtusa (Forster, 1952) — Wellington, North Island
Aoraki calcarobtusa westlandica (Forster, 1952) — Buller, South Island
Aoraki crypta (Forster, 1948) — Coromandel & Bay of Plenty, North Island
Aoraki denticulata (Forster, 1948) — Nelson, Marlborough, and Buller, South Island
Aoraki denticulata major (Forster, 1952) — Arthur's Pass, South Island
Aoraki granulosa (Forster, 1952) — Waikato, Coromandel, and Bay of Plenty, North Island
Aoraki healyi (Forster, 1948) — Marlborough and Marlborough Sounds, South Island
Aoraki inerma (Forster, 1948) — Waikato, Tongariro, and Bay of Plenty, North Island
Aoraki inerma stephenensis (Forster, 1952) — Stephen's Island, Marlborough, South Island
Aoraki longitarsa (Forster, 1952) — Mount Cook, Canterbury, South Island
Aoraki tumidata (Forster, 1948) — Cuvier Island, Coromandel, North Island
Austropurcellia Shear, 1980 (Queensland, Australia)
Austropurcellia acuta (Popkin-Hall & Boyer, 2014)
Austropurcellia alata (Boyer & Reuter, 2012)
Austropurcellia arcticosa (Cantrell, 1980)
Austropurcellia barbata (Popkin-Hall & Boyer, 2014)
Austropurcellia capricornia (Todd Davies, 1977)
Austropurcellia culminis (Boyer & Reuter, 2012)
Austropurcellia daviesae (Juberthie, 1989)
Austropurcellia despectata (Boyer & Reuter, 2012)
Austropurcellia forsteri (Juberthie, 2000)
Austropurcellia scoparia Juberthie, 1988
Austropurcellia superbensis (Popkin-Hall & Boyer, 2014)
Austropurcellia vicina (Boyer & Reuter, 2012)
Austropurcellia woodwardi (Forster, 1955)
Chileogovea Roewer, 1961 (Chile)
Chileogovea jocasta Shear, 1993
Chileogovea oedipus Roewer, 1961
Karripurcellia Giribet, 2003 (Western Australia)
Karripurcellia harveyi Giribet, 2003
Karripurcellia peckorum Giribet, 2003
Karripurcellia sierwaldae Giribet, 2003
Manangotria Shear & Gruber, 1996 (Madagascar)
Manangotria taolanaro Shear & Gruber, 1996
Neopurcellia Forster, 1948 (New Zealand: South Island)
Neopurcellia salmoni Forster, 1948
Parapurcellia Rosas Costa, 1950 (eastern South Africa)
Parapurcellia fissa (Lawrence, 1939)
Parapurcellia monticola (Lawrence, 1939)
Parapurcellia rumpiana (Lawrence, 1933)
Parapurcellia silvicola (Lawrence, 1939)
Pettalus Thorell, 1876 (Sri Lanka)
Pettalus brevicauda Pocock, 1897
Pettalus cimiciformis (O. P-Cambridge, 1875)
Pettalus lampetides Sharma & Giribet, 2006
Purcellia Hansen & Sørensen, 1904 (western South Africa)
Purcellia illustrans Hansen & Sørensen, 1904
Purcellia peregrinator Lawrence, 1963
Purcellia transvaalica Lawrence, 1963
Rakaia Hirst, 1925 (New Zealand)
Rakaia antipodiana Hirst, 1925 — Rakaia Gorge, Canterbury, South Island
Rakaia dorothea (Phillipps & Grimmett, 1932) — Wellington and Wairarapa, North Island
Rakaia florensis (Forster, 1948) — Nelson, South Island
Rakaia isolata Forster, 1952 — North Canterbury, South Island
Rakaia lindsayi Forster, 1952 — Stewart Island
Rakaia macra Boyer & Giribet, 2003 — Waipori, Otago, South Island
Rakaia magna Forster, 1948 — Wellington, North Island
Rakaia magna australis Forster, 1952 — Lewis Pass, South Island
Rakaia media Forster, 1948 — Tongariro and Bay of Plenty, North Island
Rakaia media insula Forster, 1952 — Little Barrier Island, Auckland, North Island
Rakaia minutissima (Forster, 1948) — Waikato, South Island
Rakaia pauli Forster, 1952 — Mid-Canterbury, South Island
Rakaia solitaria Forster, 1948 — Opouawa Gully, West Wairarapa, North Island
Rakaia sorenseni Forster, 1952 — Southland and Dunedin, South Island
Rakaia sorenseni digitata Forster, 1952 — Chaslands, Otago, South Island
Rakaia stewartiensis Forster, 1948 — Stewart Island
Rakaia uniloca Forster, 1952 — Marlborough Sounds, South Island
Speleosiro Lawrence, 1931 (South Africa)
Speleosiro argasiformis Lawrence, 1931
The monotypic Ankaratra franzi Shear & Gruber, 1996 from Madagascar is sometimes placed in this family, but is as of 2007 considered incertae sedis within the Cyphophthalmi.
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