| Buenaventura Baez|
| Council of Secretaries of State|
Felipe Benicio Alfau Bustamante (1853)
Manuel de Regla Mota y Alvarez (1853-1856)
Former President of the Dominican Republic
June 14, 1864, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
November 13, 1844 – August 4, 1848, July 28, 1858 – March 18, 1861, February 15, 1853 – May 26, 1856
Ana Zorrilla, Micaela Rivera
President of the Dominican Republic (1858–1861)
March 18, 1861, August 4, 1848, May 26, 1856
Buenaventura Baez, Francisco del Rosario Sanchez, Gregorio Luperon, Juan Pablo Duarte, Charles Riviere‑Herard
Manuel de Regla Mota
Pedro Santana Wikipedia
Don Pedro Santana y Familias, 1st Marquis of Las Carreras (June 29, 1801 – June 14, 1864) was a wealthy cattle rancher, soldier, politician and dictator of the Dominican Republic. He was born in the city of Hincha (today Hinche), which was part of the Colony of Santo Domingo and at the time, the third largest city of the Spanish colony, with 12,000 inhabitants (1785 church census). Currently, Hinche is located in Haiti. He was the first constitutional President of the Dominican Republic, and the first Marquess of Las Carreras.
His parents were Pedro Santana, an indigenous Mexican man, and Petronila Familias, a Canarian woman, both landowners in the border zone between Santo Domingo and Saint Domingue; this meant that Santana was a Mestizo. Around 1805, Santana moved with his family to the Cibao valley, and later to El Seibo at the eastern part of the colony, where he eventually became a cattle rancher for two years.
Santana was the Dominican Republic's president (although he ruled as a dictator) during the years 1844–48, 1853–56, and 1858–61 (when Spain annexed the Dominican Republic as Santana wished). Thereafter, Santana became governor, with the rank of Captain General of the territory. He held those titles until 1862.
Santana had great talent as a military leader, but was unable to leave his dictatorial personality on the battlefield. Though many historians criticise his rule as an economic disaster, Santana was meticulous in conducting public affairs, and obviously a great soldier.
Santana also fought with distinction in the Revolution of July 7, 1857, when Cibao placed their revolutionary army under his command. The Congress of the Dominican Republic awarded Santana the title of “Liberator of the Nation” on July 18, 1849 for his victory in the Battle of Las Carreras.
He is considered a brilliant military strategist, and was a key figure in the successful separation of the Dominican Republic from Haiti. But many historians think that some of his later actions barred him from becoming a genuine national hero.After he drove the Haitian army out of the country in the Dominican War of Independence, he almost immediately moved to eliminate the very Independentists that fought alongside him. Santana felt that the new nation could not survive without being annexed to Spain, which the Trinitarian Independentists did not accept.
He relentlessly arrested or exiled members of La Trinitaria. The very first person that was forced out of the country was Juan Pablo Duarte, founding father of the new Dominican Republic.
Santana attacked María Trinidad Sánchez, the first heroine of the Republic and aunt of Francisco del Rosario Sánchez of the Founding Fathers of the nation. She and Concepción Bona made the first national flag. Santana imprisoned her, tortured her, and sentenced her to death when she refused to name "conspirators" against him in the newly independent republic. Exactly one year after the proclamation of Independence (February 27, 1845) María Trinidad Sánchez was executed by a firing squad. This made her the first (but not last) female martyr of the republic.
Pedro Santana died in the city of Santo Domingo on June 14, 1864, shortly after having been awarded the hereditary title of Marqués de las Carreras (28 March 1862), in recognition of his victory in the Battle of Las Carreras, by Queen Isabella II of Spain, and was buried in the Ozama Fortress next to the Torre del Homenaje.