Along with entire Marathwada region, Parbhani was a part of the erstwhile Nizam State; later a part of Hyderabad State; after reorganization of states in 1956 it became a part of the then Bombay state; and from 1960 onwards it is part of the present Maharashtra state.
Parbhani is home to Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agricultural University, which is one of only four agriculture universities of Maharashtra. Moreover, Parbhani also has an annual festival at Hazrat Turabul Haq Dargah, which attracts lakhs of tourists each year.
In ancient times, Parbhani was known as "Prabhavati nagari" (Marathi: प्रभावतीनगरी) on account of the existence of a massive temple of Goddess Prabhavati. The name "Prabhavati" means goddess Lakshmi and Parvati. Present name Parbhani is a corrupt form of Prabhavati.
Parbhani languished for over 650 years under Muslim rule, under the Sultans, the Mughals and later the Nizam of Hyderabad. The town remained a part of the Princely State of Hyderabad under the rulership of the Nizam until Operation Polo of the Indian Army in 1948. Thereafter it became a part of the independent Republic of India. Until 1956 the town remained a part of Hyderabad State within India. Under the administrative reforms that year and the break-up of the State of Hyderabad, Parbhani and the adjacent towns were transferred to the multilingual Bombay State. Since 1960 it has been a part of State of Maharashtra.
Parbhani is located at 19.27°N 76.78°E / 19.27; 76.78. It has an average elevation of 347 metres.
Parbhani district is uniformly laid by the Deccan lava flows in the form of horizontally bedded sheets, similar to Deccan trap formation of basaltic composition. Being in Godavari Valley, city's soil is very fertile, deep and rich in nutrients.
Parbhani's climate is classified as tropical. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Aw. When compared with winter, the summers have much more rainfall.
According to the 2011 census, the population of Parbhani city is 307,170. Male and female populations are 157,628 and 149,563 respectively, a ratio of 949 females per 1000 males. The average literacy rate of Parbhani city is 84.34 percent (225,298 people), with male literacy at 90.71 percent and female at 77.70 percent. According to the census report, population of children (aged 0–6 years) in Parbhani city is a total ot 40,075 of which 21,187 are males and 18,888 are females, a ratio of 981 females per 1000 males.
According to 2011 census, religious population of Parbhani city is as follows, Hindus 138,562, Muslims 126,702, Buddhist 36,203, Jain 2,870, Not Stated 1,447, Christian 697, Sikh 632, Others 57. Hinduism is majority religion in Parbhani city with 45.11% followers. Islam is second major religion in city of Parbhani with approximately 41.25% following it and Buddhism by 09.21%, Christianity is followed by 0.23%, Jainism by 0.93%, Sikhism by 0.21%. Around 0.02% stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.47% stated 'No Particular Religion'.
In the fields of academics, the city is known mainly for the Agriculture University, and because of the university it is also known for the preparation of competitive exams for civil serives like Maharashtra Public Service Commission, and Union Public Service Commission.
The history of agriculture research in Parbhani dates back to pre-independence era. It began with the commencement of "Main Experimental Farm" of erstwhile Nizam State in 1918. However, agricultural education was available only at Hyderabad but crop research centres for sorghum, cotton, fruits among few others existed in Parbhani.
The first college of Agriculture was established in this region at Parbhani in 1956 by Hyderabad State Government just before the Maharashtra State reorganisation. The current day Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agricultural University (VNMAU) was established on May 18, 1972 as Marathwada Agriculture University to fulfil the regional aspirations of agrarian growth, with further responsibilities to provide education in agriculture and allied fields, and to undertake research and facilitate technology transfer in Marathwada region. It is one of the only four Agricultural Universities in the State of Maharashtra.
Since 1970s, Parbhani has proved itself as the hub of educational, research, and extension activities. The famous 'Gaorani' cotton, a breed of Indian cotton, is the result of research facilities at Parbhani. The university was renamed after the name of former Chief Minister of Maharashta, Vasantrao Naik, in 2013.
College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences is located on he campus of VNMAU which is one of the constituent Veterinary Colleges coming under the authority of Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur from 2000. Earlier this college was established in 1972 as a part of Marathwada Agriculture University.
Some of the notable colleges in the city are but not limited to:
P.D. Jain Homoeopathic Medical College which was established 1918, Saraswati Dhanwantari Dental College, Rajiv Gandhi College of Agriculture, and Food Technology, Beleshwar Institute of Nursing, Sitaramji Mundada Marathwada Polytechnic College, Dnyanopasak College of Arts, Commerce, Science, and Technology, Yeshwant College of Information Technology, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, and Dr. Zakir Hussain Women's Degree College.
Shri Shivaji College hosts a multitude of courses including Arts, Commerce, Science, Law, Diploma in Engineering, Engineering and Management, and Diploma in Pharmacy
Some of the prominent junior colleges, and schools from the city are:
Bal Vidya Mandir High School and Jr. College, Shree Shivaji Junior College of Arts, Commerce, Science, and Vocational Science, Dnyanopasak Junior College of Arts, Commerce, and Science, Gandhi Vidhyalaya High School, Marathwada High School, Indian School of Learning and Integration, Dr. Zakair Hussain High School & Junior College, National Urdu High School, Faran Urdu High School, Kamel Urdu High School, Maiudul Muslimeen Urdu High School, Orchid English School, Podar International School, Scottish School, and St. Augustine School.
Churches In Parbhani Include Christ Gospel Church, Church Of The Nazarene, Good News Church, New Apostolic Church.
Temples in Parbhani include Shree Motha Maruti a temple of Lord Hanuman, Shree Supari Hanuman Mandir, Jabreshwar, Ashtbhuja Mandir, Pardeshwar Temple and Beleshwar Temple of Lord Mahadev, Shri Siddhivinayak Ganpati Temple of lord Ganesha. The Naag Temple is also present in Parbhani, near the Temple of Lord Shani.
Recently, a temple of Goddess Maata Hingulambika's temple has been constructed by Bhavsar community behind Shri Datta Dham.
Hazarat Shah Turabul Haq Dargah (Turatpir) is located in Parbhani Town. The Dargah consists of the tomb of Hazrat Turabul Haq Shah, a Muslim saint who lived here during the last days of his life. The Dargah is famous for annual Urs, the death anniversary. Urs is an important festival where people of all religions come together and celebrate for a week (usually start from 2nd Feb to 15th Feb). dargah of Hazrat Qurban Ali shah, dargah of Hazrat Akhund Shah and dargah of many other saints are also situated in the city.
Essential basic needs of healthcare are present, as well as high-end facilities. A number of intensive care units and four Multi Super Specialty Hospitals are operational as of January 2017.
City has District Civil Hospital with 412 beds. City has Government Eye Hospital as well. It also has a separate Government Hospital for Women. Parbhani Civil Hospital proficiently carries out government operations as Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana, "National Rural Health Mission" for school going kids, "National Program for Prevention and Control of Diabetes, Cardio-Vascular Diseases, Cancer and Stroke". It also has a department to prevent and take action against swine flue. Through its workshops of "Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health" the Civil Hospital tries to spread awareness against underage marriages, and teen pregnancy. Along with these, the Civil Hospital carries out its traditional duties of spreading awareness of basic hygiene, healthcare, and vaccinations. Civil hospital does not charge any individual for acquiring condoms, and other contraceptives. It also provides most of the necessary medicines for free. The Civil Hospital charges a nominal fees for its services like surgeries.
The transport system of the city is largely dependent on rails. Parbhani railway station is a railway junction situated on Secunderabad-Manmad section of South Central Railway Zone. The town has connectivity to major cities of Maharashtra, such as Aurangabad, Mumbai, Nagpur, Pune and Ajmer. It is also connected to other Indian cities like New Delhi, Ajmer, Hyderabad, Nizamabad, Visakhapatnam and Chennai. Parbhani Junction has many facilities, such as baggage check, metal detectors, VIP Lounge, parking, ATMs, ATVM (Automatic Ticket Vending Machines), canteen (Rail Aahar), fruit stalls, book stalls, Indian Post (Bhartiya Daak), foot over-bridges, water for passenger's, milk dairy, television, wifi network (54Mbit/s), etc.
Central Bus Station of Parbhani connects Parbhani to other states of India, such as Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. There are multiple daily buses of MSRTC Parbhani Division between Parbhani to other metropolitan cities within Maharashtra, and although at less frequency, there are buses to metropolitan cities from other states mentioned above.
National Highway 61 old numbering NH222, which connects the states Telangana and Maharashtra, passes through the town, which makes it have connectivity to Mumbai, Nanded. The NH61 paves its way into National Highway 3 at Kalyan and National Highway 7 at Nirmal. These highways open further connectivity options for Parbhani, making it to connect with north-eastern cities of Indore, Jhansi, Agra and North-Southern cities like Varanasi, Nagpur, Adilabad, Nizamabad, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Kanyakumari.
On December 31, 1998 State Government approved to construct airport in Parbhani. Which was later stalled on November 1, 2001. This project is currently shelved. The location for airport was never decided.
Municipal transport buses were used to serve the city, but now "Auto Rikshaw" (three wheelers) is only public transport available in the city. During the yearly Urus (first fortnight of February month) The Municipal Corporation starts daily city buses across all major areas/neighbourhoods of Parbhani city.
Economy of Parbhani is largely depended on agriculture, and agribusiness. It has Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation area for development of industries in the region, but does not have any big industry.
Parbhani's All India Radio (Ākāshvāṇī) radio station was commissioned and became operational in 1968. With four studios, it produces programmes in Marathi, Hindi, English, Urdu and Sanskrit languages. It also provides dubbing services. The transmission covers Parbhani, Nanded, Hingoli, Latur, Jalna, Beed and Osmanabad districts, resulting an audience of approximately 10 lakhs. The frequency of transmission is 1305 kHz (MW). Parbhani also has Doordarshan Relay Centre.
All the major newspapers, and electronic news media channels have their offices, or representatives in the city.
Many sports establishments are available in Parbhani, such as swimming pool, tennis, badminton courts, cricket club, basketball club, baseball club. These clubs are operated by PMC's Department of Sports.
Furthermore, Parbhani has a multi-purpose stadium, the "District Stadium". It is owned by PMC and operated by Department of Sports.
In 2011 Maharashtra State cabinet decided to elevate Parbhani along with Latur and Chandrapur to municipal corporation as city crossed mark of 3,00,000 population in 2011 census. First election for the Municipal Corporation was conducted in 2012, after the predecessor City Council's term ended.
"Parbhani Lok Sabha constituency" is one of the 48 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Maharashtra state in western India. This constituency covers the entire Parbhani district and a part of Jalna district.
Since 1989, Parbhani is stronghold of Shiv Sena both in Maharashtra Legislative Assembly elections and in Lok Sabha elections for Indian Parliament.