Sneha Girap

Osnabruck

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Country  Germany
Population  165,021 (2012)
University  University of Osnabruck
Area  119.80 km2
State  Lower Saxony
District  Urban district
Mayor  Wolfgang Griesert (CDU)
Points of interest  Felix Nussbaum Haus, TERRA.vita Nature Park, Theater Osnabruck, Osnabruck Canal

Osnabruck ( Westphalian: ; archaic English: Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state Lower-Saxony in northwestern Germany. It lies in a valley penned between the Wiehen Hills and the northern tip of the Teutoburg Forest. A population of 154.513 makes Osnabruck the fourth-largest city in Lower Saxony. The city is centre of the region Osnabruck Land and the District of Osnabruck.

Contents

Map of Osnabruck

Important European trading routes were the reason for the subsequent founding of Osnabruck. Charles the Great founded the Diocese of Osnabruck in 780. Furthermore Osnabruck was a member of the Hanseatic League. The city became famous for the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 which brought the Thirty Years’ War to an end. The Peace Treaty was signed in Osnabruck and nearby Munster. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place in the region of Osnabruck. The city is the birthplace of novelist Erich-Maria Remarque (“All Quiet on the Western Front”) and painter Felix Nussbaum.

Osnabruck bears the title Friedensstadt ("city of peace") because of its engagement in peacemaking activities. Nowadays Osnabruck is also known for its industry. Companies of the car, grocery, paper and steel sector are located in the city and its proximity. Despite the massive destruction after World War II the old city was reconstructed thoroughly and represents medieval architecture. More than 22.000 students of the University and the University of Applied Science characterize the urban image. Historically, culturally as well as linguistically, Osnabruck belongs to the region of Westphalia.

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Name

The origin of the name Osnabruck is disputed. The suffix -bruck suggests a bridge over or to something (from German Brucke = bridge) but the prefix Osna- is explained in at least two different ways: the traditional explanation is that todays name is a corruption of Ochsenbrucke (meaning "ox bridge") but others say that it is derived from the name of the Hase River which again is argued to be derived from Asen (AEsir), giving Osnabruck the meaning "bridge to the gods". The pronunciation of the citys name can also serve as a means of telling if one is a native of Osnabruck or a visitor: most people from Osnabruck stress the last syllable while most people from elsewhere stress the first one. The city gave name to the textile fabric of osnaburg (note: "-burg" means castle and, in names, town).

History

Osnabruck in the past, History of Osnabruck

Osnabruck developed as a marketplace next to the bishops see founded by Charlemagne, king of the Franks, in 780. Some time before 803, the city became seat of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabruck. Although the precise date is uncertain, it is likely that Osnabruck is the oldest bishopric in Lower Saxony.

Osnabruck in the past, History of Osnabruck

In the year 804 Charlemagne was said to have founded the Gymnasium Carolinum in Osnabruck. This date would make it the oldest German Gymnasium but the charter date is disputed by historians, some of whom believe it could be a forgery.

In 889 the town was given merchant, customs, and coinage privileges by King Arnulf of Carinthia. It is first mentioned as a "city" in records in 1147. Shortly after in 1157, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa granted the city fortification privileges (Befestigungsrecht). Part of the medieval fortification, most of the towers are still visible in the city. Osnabruck became a member of the Hanseatic League in the 12th century, as well as a member of the Westphalian Federation of Cities.

The history of the town in the later Middle Ages was recorded in a chronicle by Albert Suho, one of the most important Osnabruck clerics of the 15th century.

Main sights

  • Town Hall
  • St. Peters Cathedral, founded in the 11th century. It has two facade towers, originally of the same size.
  • Gerdrudenberg Monastery
  • Marienkirche
  • Heger Tor ("Heger Gate"), a monument to the soldiers from Osnabruck who died at the battle of Waterloo (1815).
  • Bucksturm, the oldest tower in the city, and once part of the city walls. It was once used as prison for women accused of witchcraft.
  • Ruwe Fountain" (1985), created for the citys 1200th birthday.
  • Gladiator 2000 (1986), a gigantic painting (45 × 6 meters) by Nicolae Covaci.
  • Felix Nussbaum Haus, a Gallery and Museum dedicated to the Jewish artist and painter Felix Nussbaum, who died in the Holocaust. It was designed by the architect Daniel Libeskind.
  • Kalkriese Museum, situated on the battlefield of the Teutoburger Wald, in which German tribes under Arminius destroyed three Roman legions. It exhibits artefacts unearthed on the battlefield and tells the story of the battle.
  • Osnabruck Castle, nowadays the main building of the University of Osnabruck
  • Botanischer Garten der Universitat Osnabruck, the universitys botanical garden
  • Old town with its small streets with buildings from middle-age
  • Zoo of Osnabruck
  • Vitischanze - old time defence station at the north west point of the old city, has the only undestroyed bridge in Europe with a so-called defence walk below the bridges surface walk, faculty of the University of Applied Science of Osnabruck is installed within the Vitischanze, nearby a parking house called Vitischanze. Formerly Vitischanze was used as a casino
  • Haseuferweg
  • Katharinenkirche (St. Catherines Church) that dates back to 1248 and is one of the 150 tallest churches in the world and the tallest medieval building in the state of Lower Saxony.
  • Hyde Park, a traditional music Hall since 1976, a location of pop music and youth culture
  • Alando, a modern night club with beautiful decorations that is located near the train station and is a popular weekend hotspot.
  • Leysieffer, a chocolate producer and other cafe type treats provider, is a traditional German chocolate producer and the company was founded in Osnabruck. The main Leysieffer location is in the center of the city.
  • Economy

    Hellmann Worldwide Logistics has its headquarters in the city.

    References

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