The history of Obninsk began in 1945 when the First Research Institute Laboratory "V", which later became known as IPPE was founded. On June 27, 1954, in Obninsk started operations of the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid. The city was built next to the plant in order to support it. Scientists, engineers, construction workers, teachers and other professionals moved to Obninsk from all over the Soviet Union. Town status was granted to Obninsk on June 24, 1956. The name of the city is taken from Obninskoye, the train station in Moscow-Bryansk railroad, built in Tsarist times.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Obninsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Obninsk is incorporated as Obninsk Urban Okrug.
According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city was 104,739, down from 105,706 recorded in the 2002 Census, but up from 100,178 recorded in the 1989 Census.
The average age of the citizens is thirty-nine years.
The city is located on the main rail line between Moscow and Kiev and at the intersection of Kiev and Warsaw highways. Three international airports are within reach from Obninsk: Vnukovo (70 km), Domodedovo (100 km), and Sheremetyevo (130 km). Cargo airfield Yermolino is only 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) away.
Obninsk is one of the major Russian science cities. In 2000, it was awarded the status of the First Science City of Russia. The city is home to twelve scientific research institutes. Their main activities are nuclear power engineering, nuclear methods and radiation technology, technology of non-metallic materials, medical radiology, meteorology and ecology and environmental protection.
The first nuclear power plant in the world for the large-scale production of electricity opened here on June 27, 1954, and it also doubled as a training base for the crew of the Soviet Union's first nuclear submarine, the K-3 Leninsky Komsomol. Now the city is home to twelve scientific research institutes. Their main activities are nuclear power engineering, radiation technology, medical radiology, and meteorology.
Obninsk is famous for its meteorological tower which was built to study spreading of radiation from the nuclear station.
The following institutes are located in the city:State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Institute for Physics and Power Engineering
State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Obninsk Scientific Production Enterprise "Tekhnologiya"
Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Obninsk Branch of the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation "Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry"
Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering
Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information (World Data Center)
Central Pilot Expedition of the Geophysical Service of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology
Central Design Bureau of Hydrometeorological Instrumentation
Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Scientific Production Association TYPHOON
In the city are the plants of companies such as Kraftway (the largest manufacturer of personal computers in Russia), Ruukki, Lotte Confectionery, Hemofarm a.d..
The head of the city administration is Vladislav Shapsha.
There is a bandy club called Atom.
Obninsk has three sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States
Obninsk also has a partnership with: Limousin, France
Montpellier Agglomération, France