Naftohaz of Ukraine (Ukrainian: НАК "Нафтогаз України", literally "Oil and Gas of Ukraine"), is the national oil and gas company of Ukraine. It is a state-owned company subordinated to the Government of Ukraine. The company is involved with extraction, transportation, and refinement of natural gas and crude oil.
Ukraine's system of trunk natural gas pipelines and underground natural gas depots is operated by Ukrtransgaz, a subsidiary of Naftohaz. Another subsidiary of Naftohaz, Gas of Ukraine, is responsible for domestic gas distribution to the local district heating companies.
Naftohaz is a major Ukrainian employer with 175,000 workers. It received more than $6 billion of subsidies in domestic bonds from 2009 to 2012 as regulated gas prices and expensive Russian energy imports led to heavy losses. Former PricewaterhouseCoopers management consultant Andriy Kobolyev took over as CEO after the 2014 Ukrainian revolution tasked with reducing the country's dependence on Russian gas and reforming the company's business practices.
The company was founded in 1998 after previously being named Ukrgazprom. As of 2009, the company had 38,200 km of high pressure gas transit pipelines and more than 30 billion cubic meters of gas storage capacity. This major gas infrastructure located between Russia and the European Union has led the company to feature prominently in regional politics. Naftohaz has been seen as one of the biggest sources of corruption in Ukraine for years with many of the country's billionaires having acquired much of their wealth through gas arbitrage based on differences between the prices of Russian gas imports, gas exports to the EU and government energy subsidies to homes and businesses.
In October 2014, George Soros named Naftohaz to be "a black hole in the budget and a major source of corruption" and called for a radical reform of the company, which could "totally eliminate Ukraine's dependence on Russia for gas". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty produced a short documentary entitled "The Palaces of Ukraine's Oil and Gas Men" about the homes of Naftohaz management during the presidency of Viktor Yanukovych, who was overthrown in 2014.UkrGasVydobuvannya (UGV), a subsidiary
Ukrnafta (50% + 1), open joint-stock association
Chornomornaftogaz, state joint-stock association
Ukrtransgaz, a subsidiary
Ukrtransnafta, open joint-stock association
Ukrspetstransgaz, state joint-stock association
Gas of Ukraine, a subsidiary
In August 2014 Ukrtransgaz, the operator of the Ukrainian gas transport system, along with its Slovakian counterpart Eustream, launched natural gas supplies from Slovakia to Ukraine after signing a Memo of mutual understanding in April. This initiative was driven by Russia’s decision in June to cease gas supplies to Ukraine in retaliation for the country seeking closer ties with the European Union. By launching reverse flows, Ukraine claims it is seeking no concessions – only implementation of existing EU law on EU territory. The Third Energy Package was proposed by the European Commission in 2007 and adopted by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union in July 2009. This legislation clearly allows for gas to be traded like other commodities, thus creating a more efficient market which is less vulnerable to political pressure. In October 2014 the EU further committed to better connecting its energy grids, saying countries should be able to export 15% of their generation capacity by 2030. The consultancy firm Strategy& (formerly Booz & Co) believes the EU could save €40bn a year by 2030 if it integrates its energy grids.
Slovakia can provide more gas than Ukraine needs. In 2013, Ukraine imported 25.8bcm. Slovakia could provide Ukraine with 30bcm. Ukraine is asking that the EU fully support west-to-east exports to Ukraine, which would eliminate the scope for Russia to use gas as a weapon to achieve its political aims in Ukraine. Norway’s energy giant Statoil began transiting gas eastwards from Slovakia in 2014, and Shell began in 2015.
In response to the reverse flows initiative, Russia has cut supplies to central and eastern European countries, seeking to prevent exports to Ukraine. In September, Hungary stopped supplying gas to Ukraine, days after a meeting between Hungarian Prime Minister Orban and Gazprom’s CEO. Gazprom charges widely different prices to different European countries, which many believe is based on Russia’s political goals in the region.
Ukraine is seeking arbitration from the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce to fairly assess past debts between the two countries and to establish a fair basis of future operations.
Ukraine now plays a vital role in both the storage and transit of gas in Europe and in improving EU energy security. Ukraine has the largest storage capacity in Europe, which enables the country and its European partners to accumulate over 30 bcm of gas during summer periods when prices are lowest. Ukraine is also strategically placed to play the role of a transit hub. Its interconnectors have the ability to transfer gas from central Europe to South-Eastern Europe, which is the most exposed region to Russia's gas monopoly. Naftogaz asserts that ensuring gas flows freely will significantly improve the liquidity and the stability of the EU market, making it more resilient to political pressure.
The company drills for oil in the Western Desert in Egypt. On December 13, 2006, Naftogaz and the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation had signed an agreement on the exploration and development of oil and gas deposits on the eastern territory of Alam El Shawish East in the Western Egyptian desert. In 2014 Naftogaz began natural gas extraction in Egypt. The company's oil production in Egypt estimated at 260,000 tonnes for 2014, which is more than 10% of annual production in Ukraine. A new natural gas pipeline allowing for extraction of approximately 300,000 cubic meters per day has also been launched .
Since April 2014, Ukraine is the only non-EU country to voluntarily publish its volume in storage facilities on the EU transparency platform of Gas Storage Europe (GIE). The company also publishes data on the amount of gas entering and leaving the country.
In November 2014 Ukrtransgaz, the operator of Ukraine’s gas transportation system, began posting daily statistics on the information platform of the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG). The information can be viewed at https://transparency.entsog.eu
Naftogaz launched a new website www.naftogaz-Europe.com which will showcase its transparency initiatives.1998–2000 Ihor Bakai
2000–2000 Ihor Didenko (acting)
2000–2002 Vadym Kopylov
2002–2005 Yuriy Boyko
2005–2006 Oleksiy Ivchenko
2006–2006 Oleksiy Bolkisyev
2006–2007 Volodymyr Sheludchenko
2007–2007 Yevhen Bakulin
2007–2010 Oleh Dubyna
2010–2014 Yevhen Bakulin
2014–present Andriy Kobolyev