A Muslim is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran (Koran), their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. They also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah ) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith). "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who submits (to God)".
The beliefs of Muslims include: that God (Arabic: الله Allāh) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (tawhid or monotheism); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Moses, Ishmael and Jesus; that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (tahrif) and that the Qur'an is the final unaltered revelation from God (The Final Testament).
The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith (shahadah), daily prayers (salat), fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.
There are customs stating that anyone above the age of fifteen who possesses the faculties of rationality, logic or sanity, but misses numerous successive Friday prayers (jumu'ah) without a valid excuse, no longer qualifies as a Muslim.
Most Muslims will accept anyone who has publicly pronounced Shahadah as a Muslim. The shahadah states:
There is no god but the God (Allah) and Muhammad is the last messenger of the God.
The testimony authorized by God in the Quran can found in Surah 3:18 states.
"There is no god except God", which in Arabic (La Elaha Ella Allah), is the exact testimony which God Himself utters, as well as the angels and those who possess knowledge utter.
The word muslim (Arabic: مسلم, IPA: [ˈmʊslɪm]; English /ˈmʌzlᵻm/, /ˈmʊzlᵻm/, /ˈmʊslᵻm/ or moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/) is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima (Arabic: مسلمة) (also transliterated as "Muslimah" ). The plural form in Arabic is muslimūn (مسلمون) or muslimīn (مسلمين), and its feminine equivalent is muslimāt (مسلمات). The Arabic form muslimun is the stem IV participle of the triliteral S-L-M.
The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". It is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", which is an older spelling. The word Mosalman (Persian: مسلمان, alternatively Mussalman) is a common equivalent for Muslim used in Central Asia. Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans. Although such terms were not necessarily intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimite and Muslimist.
Musulmán/Mosalmán (Persian: مسلمان) is a synonym for Muslim and is modified from Arabic. It is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the (dated) German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος (all used for a Muslim). In English it was sometimes spelled Mussulman and has become archaic in usage.
Apart from Persian, Spanish, Polish, Portuguese, Italian, and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Dari, Pashto, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Panjabi, Turkish, Kazakh, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Azeri, Maltese, Hungarian, Czech, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian, Romanian, Dutch, and Sanskrit.
The Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said:
A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship exclusively to God...Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judiaism and Christianity, and their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Ishmael, and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity, fasting and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we are Muslims (wa-shahad be anna muslimūn)." In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat (Torah, Old Testament) to Moses, the Zabur (Psalms) to David and the Injil (Gospel, New Testament) to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets.
The most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan (11.0%), Bangladesh (9.2%), and Egypt (4.9%). About 20% of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle East and North Africa,
Sizable minorities are also found in India, China, Russia, Ethiopia, the Americas, Australia and parts of Europe. The country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world.
Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni. The second and third largest sects, Shia and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, and 1% respectively.
With about 1.6 billion followers, almost a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. due primarily to the young age and high fertility rate of Muslims, with Muslim having a rate of (3.1) compared to the world average of (2.5). According to the same study religious switching has no impact on Muslim population, since the number of people who embrace Islam and those who leave Islam are roughly equal.
A Pew Center study in 2011, found that Muslims have the highest number of adherents under the age of 15 (or- 34% of the total Muslim population) of any major religion, while only 7% are aged 60+ (the smallest percentage of any major religion). According to the same study Muslims have also the highest fertility rates (3.1) than any other major religious group.