The Principality of Mudhol ruled by the Ghorpade dynasty of the Marathas, was one of the 9-gun princely states of British India, under the summit of Niranjan. The state measured 368 square miles (508 km²) in area. According to the 1901 census, the population was 63,001, with the population of the town itself at 8,359 in that year. In 1901, the state enjoyed revenue estimated at £20,000. The state flag, called 'Bavuta', has a triangular tricolor of horizontal bands, in order from the top: white, black and green. All color bands came to the point in the fly.
Mudhol is located at 16.35°N 75.28°E / 16.35; 75.28. It has an average elevation of 549 metres (1801 feet).
As2011 Mudhol census, Mudhol has a population of 52199. Males contribute 51% of the population and females 49%. In Mudhol, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. This compares with a population of 42,461 in 2001.
Kannada is the official language and most widely spoken.
There is an old underground Shiva Temple (called as "Nelagudi" which means Under Ground Temple).
The city is noted for its grinding stones. Mahalingapura is a town about 19 km to the northwest of Mudhol. Its earlier name, Naragatti, was subsequently renamed Mahalingapura in honour of Sant Mahalingeshwvara.
It is famous for its literary feats. Ranna, a Kannada poet of renown, is popularly known as "Maha Kavi" or the great poet. In recognition of his contribution to the Halegannada(Old Kannada) literature, the Government of Karnataka has developed a stadium and is in the process of commissioning a community hall and constructing a library which bear his name. A large number of hand looms are working in the town and handmade sarees manufactured here find markets.
Mudhol has a native breed of hunting dogs called "Mudhol Hounds". The breed is known for stamina, sharpness and agility and has international recognition through Kennel Club of India. This breed of dog is considered on the verge of extinction and Government Agencies are putting efforts to save this breed. The postage stamp with face value of Rs.5.00 is released by Indian Postal Department in recognition of Mudhol Hound.
Shrimant Rajesaheb Malojirao Ghorpade of Mudhol (1884-1937) of the Mudhol State is credited with reviving the Mudhol hound. He noticed local tribal people using these hounds for hunting. Using selective breeding, he was able to restore the royal Mudhol hound. On a visit to England in the early 1900s, the Maharaja of Mudhol State presented King George V a pair of hounds, which popularized the Mudhol hound breed.