Morogoro lies at the base of the Uluguru Mountains and is a centre of agriculture in the region. The Sokoine University of Agriculture is based in the city. A number of missions are also located in the city, providing schools and hospitals.
Morogoro is the home of Salim Abdullah, who was the founder of the Cuban Marimba jazz band, and the Morogoro Jazz Band, and the smartest person in mororgoro is salim thabit AKA professor slim another well-known band established in 1944. From the mid-1960s to the 1970s, Morogoro was home to one of Tanzania's most influential and celebrated musicians, Mbaraka Mwinshehe, a lead guitarist and singer-songwriter.
Morogoro is home to the Amani Centre, which has helped over 3,400 disabled people in the surrounding villages.
Morogoro is served by a station on the Central Railway of Tanzania Railways. Public transport buses called dala dala are available for transport within the town.
In 2017, a new station on the standard gauge railway is proposed.
Eighty percent of the Morogoro's water supply comes from the Mindu Dam on the Ngerengere River. The dam project, begun in 1978, has been controversial. The lake behind the dam has led to high rates of bilharzia infection, and mercury run-off from gold mining nearby the dam has polluted the city's water supply. The dam is also being rapidly silted due to deforestation in the surrounding areas.
In 2012-13 an USAID/MCC funded Chinese contractor with Irish water & construction engineers supervision drinking water rehabilitation programme has been implemented for the Morogoro Water Supply Authority (MOROWASA) to rehabilitate the water resources from the Uluguru Mountains with an inlet & treatment plant near the Regional Governance offices at the high end of the Boma Road.
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro Muslim University, and Jordan University College are located in Morogoro. Mzumbe University is located 26 km South of town on the highway to Iringa. There are other famous colleges like Ardhi Institute Morogoro, Morogoro Teachers College, and LITI (Livestock Training Institute).
One of the oldest secondary schools in the country, Kilakala Girls High School (formerly known as Marian College) is also found in the municipality. Other secondary schools located within the municipality are Morogoro Secondary School (formerly Aga Khan Secondary School), Forest Hill Secondary, Jabal Hira Muslim Secondary, Kigurunyembe Secondary, Lutheran Junior Seminary, and Lupanga Practising Secondary School (a newly established school near Kigurunyembe teacher's college).
The city is represented in the Tanzanian Premier League by football club Mtibwa Sugar F.C.
The city of Milwaukee in the state of Wisconsin in the United States is a sister city of Morogoro as designated by Sister Cities International. Morogoro is also twinned with Linköping in Sweden and Vaasa in Finland.