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Mohammad Ali Foroughi

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Preceded by  Reza Pahlavi
Monarch  Reza Shah
Succeeded by  Mahmoud Jam
Role  Teacher
Children  Mohsen Foroughi
Succeeded by  Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Preceded by  Mehdi Qoli Hedayat
Name  Mohammad Foroughi
Predecessor  Reza Shah
Books  Complete Works of Saadi
Mohammad Ali Foroughi httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu
Monarch  Reza Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
Died  November 6, 1942, Tehran, Iran
Education  Dar ul-Funun, Tehran School of Political Science
Similar People  Reza Shah, Mohsen Foroughi, Hossein Fardoust, Fawzia Fuad of Egypt, Princess Ashraf of Iran

Mohammad Amini, محمد اميني « محمدعلي فروغي ـ ذکا الملک »؛

Mohammad Ali Foroughi Zoka-ol-Molk (1877 – 1942) (Persian: محمدعلی فروغی ذكاءالملک‎‎) was a teacher, diplomat, writer, politician and Prime Minister of Iran.


Early life and education

Foroughi was born in Tehran to a merchant family from Isfahan. His ancestor, Mirza Abutorab was the representative of Isfahan in Mugan plain during Nader Shah Afshar's coronation. His grandfather, Mohammad Mehdi Arbab Isfahani, was amongst the most influential merchants of Isfahan and was skilled in history and geography. His father Mohammad Hosein Foroughi was the translator of the Shah from Arabic and French. He was also a poet and published a newspaper called Tarbiat. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar nicknamed Mohammad Hosein, Foroughi, after hearing a poem that he had written. Many sources alleged that Foroughi's ancestors were Baghdadi Jews who came to Isfahan and converted to Islam. During occupation of Iran in the second world war, Nazi Germany often emphasized this alleged Jewish ancestry in radio broadcasts. During his early life, Foroughi studied at the elite Dar ul-Funun (House of Sciences) in Tehran.


In 1907, Foroughi's father died, and thus Foroughi inherited his father's title of Zoka-ol-Molk. During the same year, Foroughi became the dean of the College of Political Sciences. In 1909, he entered politics as a member of Majlis (Parliament), representing Tehran. He subsequently became speaker of the house and later minister in several cabinets as well as prime minister three times and once as the acting prime minister when Reza Khan resigned as prime minister to take up the crown as Reza Shah. In 1912, he became the president of the Iranian Supreme Court. Later he was appointed prime minister and dismissed in 1935 due to the father of his son-in-law's, Muhammad Vali Asadi, alleged participation in the riot in Mashhad against the reforms implemented by Reza Shah.

However, later Foroughi regained his status and became Prime Minister during the initial phase of Muhammad Reza Pahlavi's reign. Foroughi as a prime minister was instrumental in having Mohammad Reza Pahlavi proclaimed as king after his father, Reza Shah, was forced to abdicate (16 September 1941) and exiled by the allied forces of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union during World War II. After the collapse of his cabinet, he was named Minister of Court and then named ambassador of Iran to the United States of America, but he died in Tehran at the age of 65 before he could assume the post. Foroughi is known to have been a freemason.


Foroughi wrote numerous books, including

The History of Iran, The History of the Ancient Peoples of The East, A Short History of Ancient Rome, Constitutional Etiquette, A Concise Course in Physics, Far-fetched Thoughts, The Wisdom of Socrates, The History of Philosophy in Europe, My Message to the Academy of Language (Farhangestan), The Rules of Oratory or The Technique of Speech Making, a book on the Shahnameh (The Book of Kings).

In addition to this, he prepared scholarly editions of the works of Saadi, Hafez, Rumi, Omar Khayyam and Ferdowsi.

His son Mohsen Foroughi was a renowned architect who completed his studies in France and designed Niavaran Palace Complex, which is situated in the northern part of Tehran, Iran. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqraniyeh Palace of the time of Nasir al-Din Shah of Qajar dynasty is also inside this complex. The main Niavaran Palace, completed in 1968, was the primary residence of the last Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial family until the Iranian Revolution.Franz Malekebrahimian worked directly under Mohsen Foruoghi in implementation and maintenance of the Palace.


Mohammad Ali Foroughi Wikipedia