The Maynooth Grant was a major British political controversy of the 1840s, which arose partly because of the general anti-Irish and anti-Catholic feelings of the British population.
In 1845, the British Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, sought to improve the relationship between Roman Catholic Ireland and Protestant England by increasing the annual grant from the British government to a Catholic seminary in Ireland.
In 1795, the British government supported the founding of a Catholic seminary in Maynooth, Ireland. It was named St. Patrick's College and is often simply called Maynooth College. The college was funded by the British government. The grant given to the college was £8,000 annually. The rate stayed the same from 1809 to 1845, when Peel proposed it be increased to £26,000 annually.
Peel made the proposal to increase government funding to Maynooth College in 1845. Under his proposal, the seminary would receive upwards of £26,000 annually and a grant of £30,000 for repairs. Conservatives in the British government were outraged that the Prime Minister was so adamant about supporting a Catholic seminary. They saw it as unnecessary and dangerous for Britain, a Protestant state, to finance a Catholic seminary. Queen Victoria wrote about the controversy: "I am sure poor Peel ought to be blessed by all Catholics for the many and noble ways in which he stands forth to protect and do good for poor Ireland. But the bigotry, the wicked and blind passion it brings forth is quite dreadful, and I blush for Protestantism!" In 1849, she and Prince Albert would make a point of visiting the seminary on their visit to Ireland.
In 1845, John Plumptre, member of Parliament for East Kent and an opponent of the Grant, issued an address, saying:
As you value His favour, as you deprecate His frown, as your hearts and your altars are dear to you; as you would retain and enjoy for yourselves, and transmit to your children, the blessings and privileges which belong to you as Protestants, I beseech you to oppose, with all zeal and firmness, with all temperance and calmness, with all loyal attachment to your Sovereign--with all union among yourselves--with all charity towards all men--with all prayer and supplication towards God--this fresh inroad about to be made upon your consciences,--this new and deep wound to your highest and holiest feelings.
This is strong evidence of the moral implications of the issue in Parliament.
The Anti-Maynooth Conference was held in London with over 1000 delegates from England and Ireland and more than a million signatures were collected to oppose the grant.
Also contributing to the political unrest was a group known as the "Voluntaryists," who were also opposed to the grant. Their issue with it was not, however, over any sort of religious difference. They opposed the idea of the government granting money to any private institution of higher education, and so were upset about the Maynooth Grant.
The 1845 Maynooth bill was carried by 323 to 176 votes.
While the grant was controversial, and weakened Peel's government, it set a precedent, and within three years, government support was being given to Catholic schools in England.