During the reign of Sher Shah Suri, the famous emperor who defeated Humayun, visited Kolhuvavan (Madhuban) to meet the great Sufi saint Syed Ahmad Wadva. Mahvani, one of the daughters of Sher Shah was settled permanently near the dargah of Syed Sahab.
In 2011, Mau had population of 2,205,968 of which male and female were 1,114,709 and 1,091,259 respectively with population density of 1287 people per km2. In 2001 census, Mau had a population of 1,853,997 of which males were 933,523 and remaining 920,474 were females with population density of 1087 people per km2. There are 978 Females for every 1000 Male and child sex ratio of girls is 946 per 1000 boys in Mau, Which is above the national average of 940.
Prominent English language dailies are The Times of India, North India Times, Hindustan Times, The Pioneer and The Indian Express. Several newspapers in Hindi and Urdu are also published daily. Hindi papers include Dainik Jagran, Crime and Detective Times, Amar Ujala, Dainik Hindustan, Rashtriya Sahara, Jansatta, I Next and Swatantra Bharat while the main Urdu papers are The Inquilab, Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Avadhnama, Qaumi Khabrein, Aag, Roznama Urdu, and Subahnama Urdu. Air vivid bharti(102.2) which broadcast from mau.
Common Indian Festivals such as Eid, Holi, Diwali, Durga Puja, Vijayadashami, Chhath Puja, Christmas, Bhaiya Duj are celebrated with great pomp and show in the city.
Mau is industrial town of eastern UP. After demise of textile industry of Banares and Mubarakpur, Mau stands as one of the last bastion of textile hubs of UP. A 1998-99 survey of Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) puts number of powerlooms at 58,381.
There are speculations that this huge industry will benefit if GI is awarded to Mau as well as if clusters (of powerlooms, resembling modern industry) are encouraged. But as of date only one clustur has been identified as Palki Industries Pvt. Ltd. with 4100 units as per MSME survey of 2012. Mau also contains three small industrial areas in Tajopur, Shahadatpura and Ghosi.
22.63% of District population resides in Urban area.
According to 1991 census sc/st population is 319,000 which is 22% of total population.
Population density of the district in 2011 census is 1287/km2
In 1997-98 total foodgrain production is 372,000 tonnes
Net irrigated area is 1,120 km2 & gross irrigated area is 1,530 km2
Percentage of electrified villages is 88.1% in the year 1997-98.
Per capita electricity consumption is 162 units in the year 1998-99.
In 1998 -99 total number of rural & small industrial units are 61526.
Total number of Handloom/Powerloom units are 58381 in 1998-99.
Percentage of Workers in the district, according to 1991 census, is 33.2%.
Number of dependents per hundred workers is 201.
According to 1991 census, 68.3% of total workers were directly involved in agriculture.
In 1996-97 per cultivator net sown area was 6,500 square metres
CD ratio in 98-99 is 11.96.
Length of metalled road per 100,000 population is 57 km.
Telephone connection per 100,000 population 275
People from Mau
Dr. Krishna N. Sharma is a prolific writer.
Parichay Das (born 1964) Bhojpuri-Hindi-Maithili writer, singer
Shyam Narayan Pandey ( Born 1907) Was an Indian poet. His epic Jauhar depecting the self- sacrifice of Rani Padmini a queen of Chittor.
Laxmi Narayan Mishra (1903–1987) actor and playwright
Fiza Ibn-e-Faizi (1923–2009) Urdu and Persian poet