The M1870 Vetterli was the Italian service rifle from 1870-1887, when it was gradually replaced with the M1870/87 Italian Vetterli-Vitali variant. The M1870 was a single-shot bolt action rifle chambered for the 10.4mm Vetterli centrefire cartridge, at first loaded with black powder and later with smokeless powder. The M1870 was based upon the M1869 Swiss Vetterli but simplified for economy.
10.4mm Fucile di Fanteria, Modello 1870/87 Vetterli-Vitali
In 1887 (until 1896), the Italian Army began converting the M1870 to a four-shot repeating rifle, based on the system designed by Italian Artillery Captain G. Vitali. This conversion added a box magazine fed from a Swiss-style fabricated Steel and wood stripper clip holding four cartridges, in the same caliber 10.4x47R mm as before. The clip is pressed into the magazine, until the last round catches under the Cartridge retainer, and then the clip is withdrawn using the "Pull string" in the top wooden frame of the clip. Clips of cartridges were supplied in a soldered sheet steel box, holding 6 clips.
The Conversion to the Vitali Magazine was done on the Long Rifle, the TS ( Special Troops Musketoon) and Possibly some of the Carabinieri Carbines; No Vitali conversions were done to the Moschetto da Cavalleria for Metropolitan Italian Troops. In 1888, the Fondo Coloniale (Eritrea) requested 500 Vitali-converted Vetterli Cavalry Carbines for the Eritrean Native Cavalry ("Spahi"—Swahili for "horse-soldier"). There are currently 5 known (confirmed) examples still in existence ( 1 Australia,2 USA,2 Italy). Collectors refer to it as the M1870/88 V.V.Eritrean Cav.Carbine The Regio Esercito (Royal Army) Cavalry units maintained the M1870 single shot Moschetto da cavalleria until replaced by the M1891 Moschetto da cavalleria, in 1893.
The conversion is indicted by a cartouche "ARTIG. FAB. D'ARMI TERNI 1888" (date varies), on the butt stock. The center of the cartouche displays a Crest of Savoy and the word, "Riparazione" (Italian for repair) is directly below the cartouche. Shortages of small arms appeared from the very beginning of Italy’s entrance into World War I on the side of the Allies.
As more of the population mobilized for the first total war in European history, the supply of modern small arms fell short before the end of 1915 and a large number of obsolete Modello 1870/87 Vetterli-Vital were issued to newly formed regiments that were not expected to be in combat, however, troops carried these antiquated rifles into battle on several occasions.
As well, in 1916, Italy sent a large number of Vetterli-Vitali Rifles to Russia; ammunition and components were contracted for by Britain to Remington Armory. These "Tsarist" Rifles eventually ended up in Republican Hands in the Spanish Civil War, as the Soviet Union emptied its depots of all the old black powder and early smokeless rifles it had inherited after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.
During World War I, many M1870/87 rifles were converted to share the same 6.5mm smokeless powder round as the primary service rifle, the Carcano, by adding a 6.5mm barrel lining and a modified M91 Carcano magazine. The Barrel sleeving was called the "Salerno Method"; The bolt face was also machined to accept the smaller diameter 6,5 Cartridge head, and the Firing Pin shortened. These conversions were used for Rear Echelon troops (Guards, training, etc.) and were rarely, if at all, fired with standard 6,5 military ball ammunition. After WW I, a lot of these rifles were assigned to the Colonies of Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica ("Libia") and also to Eritrea and Somalia, again, as rarely-fired training rifles. These rifles were used again in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, mostly by native African soldiers.
It is considered by knowledgeable collectors that due to the Rifle's age, and general condition ( Manufactured 1870-1890s) and converted twice (87-90s and again 1915-16), that the Black Powder Technology of the Vetterli Design is not suitable for Repeated use (i.e. Intense Combat use) with normal Italian Ball ammunition of 6,5mm, or its present-day commercial equivalent. Even back in the 1920s, anecdotal accounts of Salerno sleeves loosening under "hot" fire (they were soft-soldered in place) and subsequent "blow-by" experience since the 1950s appearance of these rifles as "Surplus" has led to a healthy skepticism about their safety. Owners of these rifles are advised in most Web-boards and Forums dealing with the Vetterli(Vitali)Carcano M70/87/15 to either "Wall-Hanger" it, or only use cast bullet loads or mild handloads with jacketed bullets, and not "over use" the rifle.