Supriya Ghosh (Editor)


Updated on
Share on FacebookTweet on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on Reddit
Domain  Eukaryota
Class  Aconoidasida
Order  Achromatorida
Rank  Genus
Phylum  Apicomplexa
Subclass  Haemosporidiasina
Suborder  Theileriina
Leucocytozoon httpsmicrobewikikenyoneduimagesthumb889L
Similar  Haemoproteus, Haemosporida, Hepatozoon, Haemoproteidae, Plasmodiidae

2013 3 9 leucocytozoon part 1

Leucocytozoon (or Leukocytozoon) is a genus of parasitic alveolates belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. The parasites were first seen by Vasily Danilewsky in 1884 in blood from an owl. The genus was created by Ziemann in 1898. This taxon was revised by Berestneff in 1904 and then by Sambon in 1908.


The species of this genus use blackflies (Simulium species) as their definitive host and birds as their intermediate host. There are over 100 species in this genus. Over 100 species of birds have been recorded as hosts to these parasites.


It has been suggested that this genus arose in the late Oligocene or early Eocene at about the same time as Piciformes and Coraciiformes.


The genus is divided into two subgenera: Akiba and Leucocytozoon - based on the vector species.

The only known member of the subgenus Akiba is Leucocytozoon (Akiba) caulleryi which uses members of the genus Culicoides as its vectors.

The remaining species in the genus use members of the Simulium genus as their vectors.

In 1977, Greiner and Kocan in an extensive examination of species in the order Falconiformes declared that the only valid species infecting this order was L. toddi.

L. dubreuili is considered to be restricted to the family Turdidae; L. fringillinarum is considered to be restricted to several passiform families; and L. majoris is considered restricted to the family Paridae.

L. ziemanni infects owls.

Life cycle

The life cycle of these parasites was determined in the 1930s by O'Roke in waterfowl and by Skidmore in turkeys.

Sporozoites are found in the salivary glands of an infected Simulium fly and are transmitted to the bird when the fly bites the bird to feed on its blood. The injected sporozoites find their way to the liver where they infect hepatocytes and develop into trophozoites and then into schizonts. These schizonts divide into merozoites after 4–6 days. The duration of this stage depends in part upon the species. In some species this stage may occur in the endothelial cells instead of the liver.

The nuclei of the schizonts is enclosed in a trilaminar membrane with peripherally arranged chromatin. The schizonts also contain numerous cytomers also with trilaminar membranes and containing multiple ribosomes. Repeated invagination of the cytomeres gives rise to the merozoites which also have a trilaminar membrane.

The newly released merozoites infect either erythrocytes, leukocytes, macrophages or endothelial cells. Those infecting the macrophages or endothelial cells develop into megaloschizonts. The megaloschizonts divide into primary cytomeres, which in turn multiply into smaller cytomeres, which mature into schizonts, which in turn divide into merozoites.

The merozoites have rhoptries, micronemes and three apical rings. The mitochondrion contains vesicular cristae. There may be one or two paranuclear bodies in some species. Their function is unknown.

In erythrocytes or leukocytes, merozoites develop into gametocytes. Two gametocyte forms are recognised: an elongated (sail-like) form and a compact spherical form. These are usually 12-14 micrometres long. The large gametocytes tend to grossly distort the infected cells and make cell identification difficult. A pseudopigment known as volutin may be present.

The gametocytes mature in the insect midgut into macrogametocytes (female) with red-staining nuclei and microgametocytes (male) with pale-staining diffuse nuclei: these fuse to form an ookinete. The male gametocytes normally give rise to eight microgametes.

The ookinete penetrates an intestinal cell of the fly and matures into an oocyst. After several days the oocyst produces ~100 sporozoites that leave and migrate to the salivary glands of the fly.

Diagnostic criteria

Form gamonts in white blood cells and/or erythrocytes. Gametocytes cause marked enlargement and distortion of the infected cell producing a football-like appearance.

No merogony occurs in either leucocytes or erythrocytes.

Merogony occurs in the parenchyma of liver, heart, kidney, or other organs. Meronts may form large bodies divided into cytomeres.

Hemozoin deposits (pigment) are not formed - a useful distinguishing feature for Leucocytozoon from Haemoproteus and Plasmodium.

Oocysts develop rapidly in 3 – 5 days. The oocysts are small and nonexpanding, reaching 13 micrometres in diameter and typically have less than 100 short, thick sporozoites.

The vectors are Simulium or Culicoides species.

The vertebrate hosts are birds.

Type species: Leucocytozoon ziemanni


The typical pathology of infection with these parasites includes anaemia and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Gross lesions also include pulmonary congestion and pericardial effusion.

Megaloschizonts appear as grey-white nodules found in the heart, liver, lung or spleen. Microscopically there is ischemic necrosis and associated inflammation in the heart, brain, spleen and liver due to occlusion of blood vessels by megaloschizonts in endothelial cells. Ruptured schizonts may induce granulomatous reactions in the surrounding tissues.

Clinically the majority of birds affected with leucocytozoonosis exhibit no signs. Among those that do the signs include mild to severe signs of anorexia, ataxia, weakness, anemia, emaciation and difficulty breathing.

The excess mortality due to Leucocytozoon in adult birds seems to occur as a result of debilitation and increased susceptibility to secondary infection.


L. simondi is suspected to be a major parasite of Canadian geese in some areas, including the upper Midwestern United States and Canada. L. smithi affects turkey farms in the southeastern United States.

Host range

Bird hosts

  • L. anatis - ducks
  • L. andrewsi - chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
  • L. anseris - geese
  • L. artamidis - wood-swallows (Artamidae species)
  • L. atkinsoni - common jery (Neomixis tenella)
  • L. balmorali - shrikes (Laniidae species), bushshrikes (Malaconotidae species)
  • L. bennetti - hook-billed vanga (Vanga curvirostris)
  • L. berestneffi - yellow-billed magpie (Pica nuttalia)
  • L. bishopi - parrotbills (Paradoxornithidae species)
  • L. bonasae - ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), spruce grouse (Canachites canadensis), ptarmigan
  • L. bouffardi - weaver birds (Ploceidae species)
  • L. brimonti - bulbuls (Pycnonotus species)
  • L. caprimulgi - nightjars (Caprimulgidae species)
  • L. caulleryi Mathis and Leger 1909 - chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
  • L. coracinae - swifts (Apodidaeavian species), cuckoo-shrikes (Campephagidae)
  • L. danilewskyi - owl (Strix occidentalis)
  • L. deswardti - Sugarbirds (Promeropidae species)
  • L. dubreuili - American robin (Turdus migratorius)
  • L. dutoiti - finches (Fringillidae species)
  • L. frascai - rufous-headed ground-roller (Atelornis crossleyi)
  • L. fringillinarum - finches (Fringilla coelebs), dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis), white winged crossbills (Loxia leucoptera), yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava), house sparrow (Passer domesticus biblicus)
  • L. gentili - house sparrow (Passer domesticus)
  • L. greineri - common sunbird asity (Neodrepanis coruscans), velvet asity (Philepitta castanea)
  • L. grusi - sandhill crane (Grus canadensis)
  • L. hamiltoni - Bukharan great tit (Parus bokharensis)
  • L. lairdi - blue vanga (Cyanolanius madagascarinus)
  • L. liothricis - Old World babblers (Timaliidae species)
  • L. lovati - greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus), wild rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus)
  • L. maccluri - Thailand thrush (Zoothera marginata)
  • L. macleani Sambon 1908 - chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)
  • L. majoris - yellow wagtails (Motacilla flava)
  • L. marchouxi - Mauritian pink pigeon (Columba mayeri), doves
  • L. nectariniae - sunbird (Nectarinia olivacea)
  • L. neavei - guinea fowl
  • L. pogoniuli - tinker barbets (Pogoniulus atroflavus, Pogoniulus subsulphureus)
  • L. pycnonoti - bulbuls (Pycnonotidae species)
  • L. roubaudi - estrildid finches (Estrildidae species)
  • L. sabrazesi Mathis and Leger 1910 - chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
  • L. schoutedeni Rodhain, Pons, Vandenbranden and Bequaert 1913 - chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
  • L. schufneri Prowazek 1912- chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)
  • L. shaartusicum - redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus)
  • L. simondii - ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris), wood duck (Aix sponsa), white Pekin duck (Anas bochas), Mexican duck (Anas diazi), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), black duck (Anas rubripes), geese (Branta canadensis), Emperor Goose (Chen canagica), mergansers (Mergus merganser), trumpeter swans (Olor buccinator), eider duck (Somateria mollissima)
  • L. smithi - turkeys (Meleagris species)
  • L. sturni - starlings (Sturnidae species)
  • L. tawaki - penguins (Spheniscidae species)
  • L. timaliae - Old World babblers (Timaliidae species)
  • L. toddi - Coopers hawk (Accipiter cooperii), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), Red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Chimango Caracara (Milvago chimango), grouse
  • L. trachyphoni - barbet (Trachyphonus purpureus)
  • L. ziemanni - eagle owl (Bubo bubo), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), snowy owls (Nyctea scandiaca), spotted owls (Strix occidentalis)
  • L. zosteropis - white-eyes (Zosteropidae species)
  • Vectors

  • L. bonasae - Simulium aureum, Simulium latipes
  • L. caulleryi - Culicoides arakawae
  • L. lovati - Prosimulium hirtipes, Simulium japonicum, Simulium uchidai
  • L. simondi - Cnephia ornithophilia, Simulium rugglesi
  • L. smithi - Simulium nigritarse
  • L. tawaki - Austrosimulium ungulatum
  • References

    Leucocytozoon Wikipedia