Kiliwa (in Kiliwa: Koléew Ñaja') is a Yuman language spoken in Baja California, in the far northwest of Mexico, by the Kiliwa people.
The Kiliwa language was extensively studied by Mauricio J. Mixco, who published Kiliwa texts as well as a dictionary and studies of syntax.
As recently as the mid-1900s, Mixco reported that members of the native community universally spoke Kiliwa as their first language, with many Kiliwas also bilingual in Paipai. At the start of the twenty-first century, Kiliwa is still spoken; a 2000 census reported 52 speakers. However, the language is considered to be in danger of extinction.
Kiliwa is a language of the Yuman Family Language Summit, held annually since 2001.
Kiliwa is the southernmost representative of the Yuman family, and the one that is most distinct from the remaining languages, which constitute Core Yuman. The Kiliwa's neighbors to the south, the Cochimí, spoke a language or a family of languages that was probably closely related to but not within the Yuman family. Consequently, the Kiliwa lie at the historic "center of gravity" for the differentiation of Yuman from Cochimí and of the Yuman branches from each other.
Linguistic prehistorians are not in agreement as to whether the Kiliwa's linguistic ancestors are most likely to have migrated into the Baja California peninsula from the north separately from the ancestors of the Cochimí and the Core Yumans, or whether they became differentiated from those groups in place. The controversial technique of glottochronology suggests that the separation of Kiliwa from Core Yuman may have occurred about 2,000-3,000 years ago.
p, t, c, k, kw, q, ?
(v), s, (SS), x, xw, (hw)
m, n, ny
i, u, ii, uu
(1) High, (2) Falling, (3) Low
The morphology in the Kiliwa language consists of many affixes and clitics. More of these are available on the verb rather than the noun. These affixes are usually untouched and added on to a modified root.
Kiliwa is a verb-final language that usually follows the order subject-object-verb. Dependent object clause should be found before the verb, whereas relative or adjectival clauses appear to the right of the noun they modify.
The following Kiliwa toponyms are from the map given in Mixco (2000:70).Settlements
xaʔ kwpan - Agua Caliente
xpiʔ kwnaan - San Isidro
mxwaa - Los Coches
pnyil - Santo Domingo
kwʔiy yuwuʔ - San Quintin
xwiym xaʔ - San Felipe
ʔipaʔ cʔaa - Tijuana
xwa nymat - Mexicali
xaʔtay hwatuʔ - Ensenada
yuwl ʔmat - Santa Catarina
kwʔiy yaquʔ - Salinas
xyil - Cañón de la Esperanza
xyaaw - San Matias Pass
kwmsalp - Colnett Point
ʔmuw wiiy - Cerro Borrego
nyaay wiiy - peak just to the south of Cerro Borrego
muw waʔ wiiy - Cerro Salvatierra
ʔqhaay spkwin - peak just to the south of Cerro Salvatierra
mt waay walu wiiy - Picacho de Diablo
ʔxaal haq - Sierra de San Pedro Martir
kwnyiil wiiy - Cerro Colorado
Bodies of water
xaʔ tay - Pacific Ocean
cwilu tay - Arroyo Grande
ʔmat pcux - San Jose Creek
mswan - San Telmo Creek
xmir - San Rafael River
xaʔ hyil - Colorado River