Chatman took official visits to Michigan, Oregon, USC and Arizona in successive weeks in September 2013. Chatman led Columbia Christian to the 2014 Oregon School Activities Association (OSAA) Class 1A championship with a team-high 19 points in the 69–48 victory over Horizon Christian Schools on March 8. He formerly played for varsity basketball for Jefferson High School in Portland, Oregon (2010–12), junior varsity at Long Beach Polytechnic High School in Long Beach, California (2012–13) due to eligibility issues after transferring. He had transferred to Long Beach, where his godfather and travel team coach Sharrief Metoyer was the coach, but the California Interscholastic Federation (CIF) ruled him ineligible for varsity competition for following his travel team coach. Upon returning to Oregon, he chose a small school (Columbia Christian) so that he could focus on his academics with fewer distractions.
At the time he was named to the Jordan Brand Classic, he was the fourth-highest rated commit in the Big Ten behind Ohio State recruits D'Angelo Russell and Keita Bates-Diop as well as Indiana's James Blackmon, Jr., according to Rivals.com. Russell and Blackmon were also selected for the Jordan Brand Classic. Chatman scored 7 points and had 2 assists in eleven minutes of play in the game.
On May 5, 2014, USA Basketball announced the 21 athletes (including Chatman) invited to tryout from June 10 to 19 for the 12-member USA national team for the June 20–24, 2014 FIBA Americas Under-18 Championship. Chatman was one of 10 incoming freshman to be selected. Eventually, 24 players tried out for the team and when the roster was cut to 15 on June 12, Chatman was eliminated. Chatman planned to enroll at Michigan for the summer semester on June 19 or thereabouts.
The 2013–14 Michigan Wolverines men's basketball team had been outright champions of 2013–14 Big Ten Conference and reached the elite eight round of the 2014 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, but lost three players to the 2014 NBA draft: Nik Stauskas, Mitch McGary and Glenn Robinson III.
Chatman started in his debut and opened the season with a team-high 4 steals against Hillsdale on November 15. On November 29, he contributed career highs of 11 points and 8 rebounds against Nicholls State. On December 2, he posted a team-high 9 rebounds in a 68–65 victory over Syracuse. On January 6 against Penn State Spike Albrecht replaced Chatman in the starting lineup. On January 17 against Northwestern, Caris LeVert suffered a season-ending injury, but Chatman was also injured in the game. On January 20, the team defeated Rutgers in its first game without LeVert, but with Aubrey Dawkins in the starting lineup (making his first start), not Chatman. On March 7 against Rutgers, Chatman posted his season-high 13 points.
Chatman began the season as a starter against Northern Michigan. In the March 11, 2016 Big Ten Conference Men's Basketball Tournament quarterfinals upset of No. 1-seeded (#10 AP Poll/#10 Coaches Poll) Indiana, Chatman scored the game-winning three-point field goal with 0.2 seconds remaining. Following the season, Kameron Chatman announced his intention to transfer with two years of eligibility remaining. On June 8, Chatman he committed to transfer to play at for the Detroit Titans under head coach Bacari Alexander after sitting out one season. Alexander had been a Michigan assistant coach until a few weeks earlier.
Chatman is a cousin of Ndamukong Suh who played defensive tackle for the nearby Detroit Lions when Chatman came to Michigan.