In 2001, she won the European Junior Championships in women's singles. 2003 saw her win the women's doubles with Nicole Grether in two tournaments; the Irish International and the Bitburg Open.
Schenk played badminton at the 2004 Summer Olympics, losing in women's singles to Tracey Hallam of Great Britain in the round of 32. Besides that she won the German championship in the women's doubles with Nicole for the first time.
She also competed in women's doubles with partner Nicole Grether. They defeated Michelle Edwards and Chantal Botts of South Africa in the first round but were defeated by Ann-Lou Jørgensen and Rikke Olsen of Denmark in the round of 16.
She won the bronze medal at the 2008 European Badminton Championships.
In 2008 Schenk competed in the Beijing Olympics. She narrowly lost her first round match against Indonesian Maria Kristin Yulianti who later succeeded to win the bronze medal.
Schenk nearly reached a bronze medal in the World Championship in Hyderabad in women's singles but lost to French Pi Hongyan in the final set 19:21. It would have been another medal for German women after the shared bronze medals of Xu Huaiwen and Petra Overzier in 2006.
In 2010 European Badminton Championships, Schenk beat 1st seed Pi Hongyan to proceed to the final. She settled for silver after losing to Tine Baun in three sets. In 2012 European Badminton Championships, she lost to Tine Baun again in the final. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, she reached the last 16, being beaten by Ratchanok Intanon.
Schenk became independent professional player in June, having severed ties with the German Badminton Association (DBV). Despite being left in a lurch, Schenk showed great determination to reach the Indonesian Open final in June. And she did that with just one training session. In the first inaugural edition of the Indian Badminton League is held from 14 August 2013 to 31 August, Schenk joined Pune Pistons with a reported salary of $90,000.
Juliane Schenk had also signed a contract with the Xiamen Tefang Badminton Club to compete in the 2013-2014 China Badminton Super League. She was beaten by Sun Yu from Guangzhou Huizhou Weihao 11-8 and 11-5, later end of the year beaten by Wang Yihan 12-10,6-11,11-6
Early 2014 in China Badminton Super League, She was beaten by Wang Shixian representing Jiangsu 11-5,11-5. Schenk had announced on her website earlier 2014 that she was intent on getting out of the top ten so that she could avoid paying fines for missing Superseries Premier events. She retired the first round in 2014 Malaysia Super Series Premier against Minatsu Mitani and had a walkover to Zhang Beiwen in 2014 All England Super Series Premier. She told the Rheinische Post that she would be working as a personal trainer, that she was studying at the University of Cologne, and that she was writing a book.
In end of April, she lost to Liu Xin in China Badminton League 7-11, 5-11
Grand Prix Gold
Super Series Premier/
Grand Prix Gold
Includes results from all competitions against Olympic opponents, quarterfinalists, Worlds semifinalists, and Superseries finalists.